Bird Families

Xanthomonas campestris pv

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Morphology

Xanthomonas campestris pv. Campestris - gram-negative non-spore-forming bacteria, in the form of rods with rounded ends. Obligate aerobes. Sizes 0.4-0.5x0.7-3.0 microns. They are located singly or in pairs, less often in chains. Capsules are available.

On agar - colonies are round, convex, smooth, shiny, initially light, later yellowish with an even edge, in the center of the crystal.

In broth - bacteria form turbidity, sediment and incomplete film in the form of a ring.

On the potato there is a convex stroke, smooth, oily-shiny, slimy, yellow, in the form of a slimy viscous mass.

Sources of infection are infected seeds, infected stalks (used to obtain seeds), infected plant debris, cabbage weeds. During the growing season, bacteria are carried by the wind, raindrops, insects, and slugs.

Reserves - weeds and cultivated species of the Cruciferous family (Crucíferae), in particular types of genera cabbage (Brássica), radish (Ráphanus), mustard (Sinápis) .

Typical symptoms:

  • on the cotyledons - brightening of the edges,
  • on adult plants - the edge of the leaf blade turns yellow, the damage zone has V-shaped outlines,
  • in the area of ​​yellowed tissue, the veins of the leaf blade turn black, forming a black mesh,
  • a cross-section of the petiole reveals browned or blackened vessels,
  • the affected areas turn dark brown over time and die off,
  • the lower leaves fall off, the heads of cabbage are crushed,
  • plants die, slow down growth and bend.

When examining the scar on the stem after removing the leaves, characteristic black rings of vascular bundles are visible. Symptoms gradually spread to the upper leaves. Chlorotic lesions appear on the latter.

Spread

Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris - distributed almost everywhere in the areas of cultivation and natural growth of various species of the Cruciferous family.

Cultivation

Bacteria Xanthomonascampestrispv.campestris isolated from plants with obvious signs of the disease - vascular bacteriosis of cruciferous crops. Incubation lasts 4–7 days at + 28 ° C. The grown colonies are subcultured on nutrient media.

Bacteria are identified using classical physiological, biochemical and molecular research methods (PCR). For Xanthomonascampestrispv.campestris, like other species of the genus Xanthomonas primary selection is carried out according to mucoid yellow growth of YDC and PSA colonies, reductioninitrates, negative reaction to oxidase, characteristic growth on SX agar.

To isolate bacteria of the genus Xanthomonas the following media are used:

  1. Potato-glucose agar, modified in the laboratory of bacterial diseases of VNIIF: 10.0 g / L - sucrose, 10.0 g / L - peptone, 5.0 g / L yeast extract, 0.5 g / L - Ca (NO3)2.4H2O, 2.0 g / l - glamic acid, 0.1 g / l - FeSO4.4H2O., 2.0 g / l - Na 2HPO4.12 H2O, 0.1 ml - 0.1% aqueous solution of gencial-violet, 20.0 g / l - agar.
  2. Wilbring's medium with boric acid: 5.0 g / l - peptone, 10.0 g / l - sucrose, 0.5 g / l - K2HPO4, 0.25 g / l - MgSO4.7H20, 0.75 g / l - boric acid, 20.0 g / l - agar.
  3. Modified XTS medium: 5.0 g / l - glucose, 23.0 g / l - nutrient agar (Difco), 0.1 ml - 0.1% aqueous solution of gentian violet.
  4. YDC medium: 10.0 g / l - yeast extract, 20.0 g / l - dextrose, 20.0 g / l - calcium carbonate (powder), 20.0 g / l - agar.

Species of the genus Xanthomonas form slimy pale yellow colonies.

Xanthomonas campestrispv.campestris develop at temperatures from 0 ° C to + 31 ° C, the optimum temperature is + 24 ° C - + 25 ° C. Bacteria die at + 47 ° C - + 48 ° C.

Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris - liquefy gelatin, milk is slowly curdled, and then peptonized, on glucose, maltose, lactose, manite, glycerin, gas and acid do not form, an idol, hydrogen sulphide and ammonia form, starch hydrolysis is carried out, nitrates are not reduced, cottonseed oil is destroyed.

Harmfulness

Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris - the causative agent of the disease is vascular bacteriosis of cruciferous crops. The defeat is observed at all stages of development. The vital activity of the pathogen leads to a decrease in the qualitative and quantitative indicators of yield. Affected heads of cabbage contain 1.5 times less sugar and 11-17% less ascorbic acid than healthy ones.

See also other dictionaries:

Anthus campestris - Pipit rousseline Pipit rousseline ... Wikipédia en Français

Anthus campestris - Brachpieper Brachpieper (Anthus campestris), Jungvogel Systematik Klasse: Vögel (Aves) ... Deutsch Wikipedia

Anthus campestris - dirvoninis kalviukas statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Anthus campestris angl. Tawny Pipit vok. Brachpieper… Paukščių anatomijos terminai

Anthus campestris - dirvoninis kalviukas statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Anthus campestris angl. tawny pipit vok. Brachpieper, m rus. field pipit, m pranc. pipit rousseline, m ryšiai: platesnis terminas - kalviukai… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

Anthus campestris - Markpiber ... Danske encyklopædi

Anthus - Saltar a navegación, búsqueda? Bisbitas Bisbita arbóreo (Anthus trivialis)… Wikipedia Español

Anthus - Anthus ... Wikipédia en Français

Anthus - Pipit à gorge rousse (Anthus cervinus ... Wikipédia en Français

8776 Campestris - is a main belt asteroid with a perihelion of 2.12574339 AU. It has an eccentricity of 0.208848 and an orbital period of 1608.6994893 days (4.40 years) .cite web | url = http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/sbdb.cgi?sstr=8776 | title = JPL Small Body Database…… Wikipedia

Pipit rousseline - P ... Wikipédia en Français

Brachpieper - (Anthus campestris), Jungvogel Systematik Klasse: Vögel (Aves) Ordnung… Deutsch Wikipedia

Contents

  • 1 Identification
  • 2 Distribution
  • 3 Taxonomy
  • 4 Habitat
  • 5 Behavior
  • 6 References
  • 7 Recommended Citation
  • 8 External Links

Taxonomy

Calamanthus campestris has seven subspecies: C. c. winiam

  • Sandplain heaths of south-eastern South Australia and adjacent western Victoria

C. c. campestris

  • South-eastern Western Australia through South Australia to north-western Victoria

C. c. rubiginosus

  • Coastal areas of central Western Australia

C. c. hartogi

  • Dirk Hartog Island (Western Australia)

  • Dorre Island (Western Australia)

C. c. wayensis

  • Salt lakes of central Western Australia

C. c. isabellinus

  • North of Lake Eyre-Frome basin of South Australia and adjacent western New South Wales


Western fieldwren Calamanthus montanellus is considered conspecific with Rufous Fieldwren by some authorities.

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