The white-fronted Amazon has an average body length of 26 cm. The main color of the body plumage is green. The forehead and narrow area around the eyes are white. The red stripe around the eyes forms a kind of spectacle frame. There is also a red stripe on the wings extending from the fold of the wing to the primary flight feathers. Flight feathers and a stripe on the crown of the head are blue. The lower part of the belly and undertail are yellowish. The iris of the eyes is yellow, and the beak is yellow. The female can be distinguished from the male by the absence of red color in the wing plumage.
The white-fronted Amazon inhabits tropical rainforests and savannas with tall trees, in the hollows of which they make their nests. In the completed clutch, as a rule, there are 2-4 eggs, after which the incubation of eggs begins, which lasts 28-30 days. The chicks stay in the nest for about two months (60-65 days), after which their parents feed them for more than a month.
The white-fronted Amazon lives in Central America, and its range extends from northwestern Mexico to Costa Rica. The species is included in the II Appendix CITES.
Currently, within the arel, the white-fronted Amazon (Amazona albifrons) includes 3 subspecies. At the same time, the white-fronted Amazon Amazona albifrons albifrons is the nominal subspecies. The subspecies lives in the central and western regions of Mexico and in the southwest of Guatemala.
The small white-fronted Amazon subspecies Amazona albifrons nana is smaller than the nominal subspecies, its body length is about 24 cm. Its range extends from the south of Mexico in the north and to the south-west of Costa Rica in the south.
The third subspecies, the Sonorian white-fronted Amazon Amazona albifrons saltuensis, differs from the nominal subspecies in the general blue-green color of the plumage. The back of his head is blue. The range of the Sonorian white-fronted Amazon lies in the area of Durango and Sonora, in northwestern Mexico.
Due to its small size and beautiful appearance, the white-fronted Amazon is very popular with bird lovers.
Description and features of the Amazon parrot
The beauty of the Amazon parrot is striking to the eye.
In the wild, there are 29 varieties of Amazonian parrots. These are birds of a dense, harmonious constitution, growing up to 25-45 cm in length. They are distinguished by unpretentiousness, balanced and gentle disposition, friendliness, fearlessness, high intelligence, quick wit, good learning ability. With proper care, Amazons can live in captivity for 50-70 years.
Feathered pets are always ready to communicate with the owner, his guests and family members. They are able to memorize from 40 to 80 words, short phrases or lines from songs, they can successfully insert them into a conversation. The negative character traits of the Amazons include impudence, a tendency to sudden mood swings and hooligan antics, aggressiveness during puberty and breeding.
Amazon parrot lifestyle and habitat
The amazona species live in the tropical and subtropical forests of the Caribbean, South and Central America. The birds keep in small flocks, and during the mating season they are divided into pairs. Nuts, fruits, leaves, flowers, buds, young shoots of trees and shrubs form the basis of the Amazons' diet.
Amazon parrot species
The main color of the Amazons is green. But all varieties of these birds have individual features - blotches of feathers of white, yellow, blue or red, located on different parts of the wings and body.
This property was used by biologists to designate all the varieties of Amazons: even without looking at the bird, it is easy to understand from one name how it differs from its counterparts.
Parrot Amazon Sinelobiy.
These birds are easily recognizable by their large size (35-40 cm in length) and rich green plumage.There is a dark edging on the outside of the feathers, and blue feathers on the frontal part of the head. The cheeks, crown, throat and frenulum are covered with yellow feathers.
A distinctive trait of the blue-fronted Amazons is their hostility towards other family members. Attention and affection from the pet will be gifted only to those whom the bird considers its master.
Parrots of this species are able to memorize several dozen words, imitate laughter, crying, coughing, sneezing, the sounds of musical instruments, mobile phone ringtones, whistling, etc.
Parrot Amazon Mueller.
Adult amazons of Müller reach no less large sizes (38-45 cm in length). They are characterized by bright blotches of yellow and red on the head and blue on the neck.
When kept in captivity, these birds need large cages or spacious aviaries.
Müller species can be annoying with loud and harsh sounds, but they do not show aggression even during puberty or breeding.
Birds are attached to all family members, but they have one drawback - they are practically unable to imitate human speech.
The yellow-fronted, or Surinamese, Amazon grows up to 40 cm in length. He remembers words and phrases well, can make sounds inherent in other birds, animals, musical instruments and household appliances. It has a calm and peaceful character.
Parrot Amazon Yellow-headed.
The visiting card of the variety is the yellow color of the feathers on the head and belly. In Europe, yellow-bellied Amazons are more popular than in our country.
They are able to memorize about 10 words, but prefer to communicate with the owner using natural sounds.
A type: Chordates
Subfamily: Real parrots
Belongs to a relatively small parrot, body length does not exceed 26 cm, weight - 380 g. The main color of the plumage is green. The forehead and narrow area around the eyes are white. The strip around the eyes, which forms a kind of spectacle frame, is red. The red stripe is also found on the wings - from the fold to the primary flight feathers. Flight feathers and a stripe on the crown of the head are blue. The lower part of the belly and undertail are yellowish. The beak is yellow. The iris is yellow. In females, there is no red color in the wing plumage.
As a rule, there are 2-4 eggs in a clutch. Incubation lasts 28-30 days. The chicks stay in the nest for 60-65 days, after which their parents feed them for more than a month.
Due to its small size, this type of parrot is very popular with birdwatchers. They usually live up to 50 years.
Aviary or cage
A well-equipped aviary - whether purchased or made with your own hands - will allow the Amazon to feel free and happy. If the area of the room does not allow installing a voluminous aviary, you will have to purchase a large cage.
Its dimensions should be such that the bird can fly freely without touching the walls of its dwelling with its wings. Therefore, it is better to buy a cage with a side length of 80-100 cm or more.
The rods of the cage or aviary should be made of unpainted metal rods with a thickness of 2-3 mm. A small padlock that can be locked from the outside of the cage will prevent your pet from leaving the house without permission. Place the cage or aviary away from heating radiators, working heaters and drafts.
Inside the parrot dwelling, you need to install:
- a container with water for bathing birds,
- wooden perches, dried tree branches,
- simulators (ladders, ropes, ropes, hanging rings and swings),
- toys (bells, rattles, rattles, pendants and figurines made of wood or safe plastic),
- accessories for sports fun (skate, roller skates, bicycle, basketball court),
- educational toys that help you get the desired treat after solving a puzzle or completing a task.
A large number of toys and entertainment will benefit the parrot. And so that the same fun does not bore the pet, they need to be cleaned or changed from time to time.
A variant of the cage for the Amazon parrot.
Improper nutrition can affect not only the health, but also the psyche of the pet. One of the main conditions for breeding Amazons is a balanced diet consisting of grain feed, fruits, berries and vegetables. The basis of the daily menu should be a grain mixture of oats, millet, canary grass and wheat, but its amount should not exceed 40-50% of the daily food volume.
The rest of the diet may include fresh foods that are peeled and cut into pieces:
The Amazon parrot's diet should be rational.
The fruits of fruit trees and berry bushes are no less beloved by parrots:
- sea buckthorn,
It is better to feed the berries fresh, but in the offseason, you can use frozen blanks. Warm up to room temperature before serving food from the refrigerator.
To provide your pet with good nutrition, it is useful to add to the diet:
- sprouted grains,
- boiled fruits of legumes,
- sunflower seeds (dosed),
- baby puree and fruit and vegetable juices,
- pickled dried fruits,
- porridge cooked in water (without salt, sugar and spices, but with a little honey),
- mineral and vitamin supplements,
- flowers, buds and buds of plants (wild rose, lilac, cherry, pear, chamomile, willow-tea, dandelion),
- young branches of raspberries, cherries, apple trees.
Dried fruits are good food for Amazon.
Do not give parrots protein foods, sweets, flour products, some fruits and vegetables.
The following are prohibited:
- all types of meat and poultry,
- sea and river fish,
- milk and lactic acid products,
- chocolate, candy,
- baked goods, confectionery,
- all types of onions,
- parsley, spicy and aromatic herbs,
- candied fruits and candied fruits,
- alcoholic drinks,
- scraps from the master's table.
There should always be fresh water in the drinker - filtered or boiled (cooled to room temperature).
The recommended daily amount of food for an adult is 50 g. Regular overfeeding can cause obesity, disruption of the digestive system, deterioration of the appearance and character of a tamed bird, and many of the adverse effects are often irreversible.
Care and hygiene
Amazon parrots live in tropical forests, where a warm and humid climate prevails. In captivity, they need to create conditions that are as close to natural as possible. The optimum temperature of the content should be in the range of + 22 ... + 27 ° С, and in the cold season it should not fall below + 18 ° С.
The second important climatic factor is air humidity: it must be maintained at a level of 60-80%. Standard humidity indicators for city apartments are 35-40%, and during the heated period it can drop to 20-25%.
Dry air will cause itching, dandruff, feather loss or brittleness, anxiety, and other health and behavioral problems in your parrot. To make the parrot comfortable, it is enough to increase the humidity in the room where its cage or aviary is located.
The most effective means of increasing humidity is an electric humidifier - ultrasonic, with cold or hot steam.
If it is not possible to purchase such a device, you can use the tools at hand:
- humidify the surrounding air and the bird itself several times a day by spraying water from a fine atomizer,
- hanging wet sheets or towels in the room,
- place a container with water in the aviary in which the pet can swim.
Give your Amazon parrot an acceptable habitat.
The Amazon parrot is a clean creature, so caring for it should include periodic (once every 2 weeks) bathing under a warm shower, daily washing of the feeders, cleaning of the cage or aviary.
The dwelling of the feathered pet must be washed weekly with a brush and hot water, but without the use of aggressive detergents. For disinfection, it is allowed to use laundry soap or scald the cage with boiling water.
Pet health and behavior also depend on the observance of the light regime. City streets are brightly illuminated by lanterns even at night, and their light entering the apartment can prevent the parrot from relaxing and fully resting.
Nightlights and other lighting fixtures that work at night can be an irritant. To provide peace to the bird, windows should be closed at night with opaque curtains or blinds. As a temporary measure, you can use a dark fabric that allows air to pass through: cover the cage with it in the evening, and remove it in the morning.
So that the Amazon does not suffer from the lack of ultraviolet radiation, experts advise to mount a lamp for parrots with a UV spectrum above the aviary and keep it on for 10-12 hours a day. In warm (above + 20 ° C), clear and calm weather, it is useful to sunbathe - take the cage with a parrot to a balcony or loggia.
With proper care, care and attention from the owners, the bird will be active, cheerful and healthy. The absence of disease can be judged by a shiny and smooth beak, clean eyes, dense and bright feathers, calm demeanor and good appetite.
Alarming signals indicating the development of a fungal, viral or bacterial infection are:
- weight loss,
- lethargy, drowsiness, lethargy,
- sneezing, wheezing,
- ruffled feathers,
- craving for self-pinching,
- redness of the cloaca,
- liquid droppings,
- overgrowth of the beak,
- eye problems (watery eyes, redness).
If your parrot shows one or more symptoms, you should see your veterinarian as soon as possible.
For the breeding of Amazons, you should take 3-4-year-old birds that have lived with their relatives since birth.... To get healthy offspring, you need to provide pets with nutritious nutrition, enriched with vitamins and minerals.
It is better to meet a male and a female in January-February, when the molting period has already passed. On the first date, bird cages should be placed side by side and monitored for the reactions of the birds. If the parrots like each other, they can be placed in a common enclosure or allowed to communicate outside the cages.
Between the first mating and the appearance of a clutch of 2-3 eggs, it can take from 14 to 60 days. The female sits on eggs for 26-30 days and only in rare cases leaves the nest. The male provides her with food and takes care of her safety. During this period, he becomes aggressive towards the owner and other family members, can attack and injure anyone who approaches the nest. Grown chicks fly out of the nest 7-9 weeks after birth.
Life and habits in nature
Cuban Amazons are forest lovers. They live in palm groves, mangroves, pine forests. They usually nest in tree hollows, but sometimes on the ground, digging holes. These parrots are very curious, sociable, like to explore unfamiliar objects, they learn well human speech, onomatopoeia. A bird can memorize an average of 20-30 words, but there are gifted individuals who memorize up to 100 words and whole phrases.
In nature, Cuban Amazons live in packs of relatives, and during the mating season they create pairs. The breeding season lasts from March to September. The female lays two to five eggs, incubating them within a month. Then both parents take turns flying for food. After 8 weeks, babies are ready to fly on their own.
Under natural conditions, the white-headed Amazon can live up to 50 years. In captivity with good care - up to 60 and more.
They feed on various seeds, palm fruits, citrus fruits, other fruits and berries.
Other species of the genus "Amazons":
- White-fronted Amazon (Amazona albifrons)
- Red-tailed Amazon (Amazona brasiliensis)
- Venezuelan Amazon (Amazona amazonica)
- Wine-breasted Amazon (Amazona vinacea)
- Yellow-headed Amazon (Amazona oratrix)
- Yellow-bellied Amazon (Alipiopsitta xanthops)
- Yellow-shouldered Amazon (Amazona barbadensis)
- Yellow-bridled Amazon (Amazona xantholora)
- Yellow-necked Amazon (Amazona auropalliata)
- Green-cheeked Amazon (Amazona viridigenalis)
- Imperial Amazon (Amazona imperialis)
- Royal Amazon (Amazona guildingii)
- Red-browed Amazon (Amazona rhodocorytha)
- Red-throated Amazon (Amazona arausiaca)
- Yellow-faced Amazon (Amazona autumnalis)
- Puerto Rican Amazon (Amazona vittata)
- Luxury Amazon (Amazona pretrei)
- Blue-faced amazon (Amazona versicolor)
- Blue-billed Amazon (Amazona dufresniana)
- Blue-capped Amazon (Amazona finschi)
- Soldier Amazon (Amazona mercenaria)
- Tucuman Amazon (Amazona tucumana)
- Festive Amazon (Amazona festiva)
- Black-eared Amazon (Amazona ventralis)
- Jamaican black-billed Amazon (Amazona agilis)
- Blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva)
- Surinamese Amazon (Amazona ochrocephala)
- Jamaican yellow-billed Amazon (Amazona collaria)
- Amazon Kawalli
- Amazon Müller (Amazona farinosa)
Video and photos of white-fronted Amazons
By Brian Gratwicke
By Michael Daines
By Dominic Sherony
By Richard Gibbons
By Tony Cyphert
What diseases can this breed have
Like all living things, the chic Amazon is not immune from various diseases. It is possible to determine that a bird is not healthy by its behavior: the parrot becomes less active, sits ruffled for a long time, nervously pulls out feathers or begins to limp on one of its legs. What can this tell the owner?
A number of specific diseases are widespread among large parrots - these can be as trivial inconveniences:
- Too long beak and claws
- Avitaminosis - in this case, most birds begin to pluck feathers,
- Stress - a bird can hide and calm down, or scream alarmingly,
- Aggressiveness before mating season.
So are the signs of unfolding diseases, such as:
- Dandruff, feather mites - this makes the feathers brittle, and the beak may flake off,
- Psittacosis is an infectious disease that is dangerous for both the parrot and the owner of the bird. In the first manifestations, fever, drowsiness, loose stools, watery eyes and a flow from the beak are characteristic. Caused by an intracellular parasite.
- Fracture of a wing or one of the legs - when moving, the parrot makes a characteristic bevel on the diseased limb,
- Scratches - the bird tries to reach the affected area and peck out the obstacle from there,
- Colds - identified by shortness of breath and cough-like sounds.
If the owner notices one or a complex of symptoms for the pet, you should immediately show the bird to the veterinarian. Due to the constant vertical position of the bird, a banal cold can easily turn into pneumonia and it will be possible to help only with a course of antibiotics, after which there will be an equally difficult recovery period.
Price and selection rules
Since in captivity the parrots of the described breed reproduce poorly, the cost of the bird is very high and amounts to 500-1000 dollars. Buying a Cuban should be approached very carefully, as poachers often try to sell it.
The bird must have the following documents:
- CITES (CITES) - confirms the legality of the purchase and sale,
- test results for diseases such as salmonellosis, psittacosis, bird flu and Newcastle disease,
- a certificate issued by a veterinary clinic.
When buying, you should also pay attention to the appearance of the bird, which must correspond to the following parameters:
- feathers fit snugly to the body,
- eyes shine
- the beak has the correct shape,
- the sternum does not protrude,
- the parrot breathes evenly and measuredly.
Check out the best talking parrot breeds.
White-headed or Cuban Amazons
White-headed, or Cuban, Amazons (Amazona leucocephala) are old acquaintances and friends of many of our lovers. Brought at different times from Liberty Island, some parrots have been living with their owners for more than a dozen years.
These are island birds, their habitat is the Bahamas, Cayman Islands and Cuba, where the nominal subspecies lives. The size of adult birds is 32-34 cm.There are 5 subspecies Cuban Amazons, very similar to each other in appearance, the exception is the subspecies (A.I. caymanensis) from the island of Grand Cayman, in the plumage of which yellow-green tones prevail, the red color is more modest, the ring around the eyes is grayish.
Largely "Cubans"- gifted parrots... They can easily memorize and reproduce human speech, melodies, animal voices, are very sociable and inquisitive, strive to be in the center of attention of others. However, even close people are treated differently. Owners often note the impulsiveness and unpredictability of their pets' behavior. Possessing a good memory, they long remember their trainer and, at an opportunity, can take revenge on him.
The first breeding in captivity was successful in 1922 in Japan, later offspring were obtained in zoos in England and other European countries. Currently breeding these parrots in vitro is not uncommon. Czech poultry farmers have achieved particular success in this. The incubation period lasts 30 days, chicks begin to leave the nest after 70 days. There is no sexual dimorphism, gender does not affect learning ability. It is difficult to determine the age of birds; in young, not yet sexually mature, the black edging of feathers is blurred, less distinct. Two rare subspecies Cuban Amazons included in CITES Appendix 1.
The Cuban Amazon, or white-headed (lat.Amazona leucocephala) is a bird of the parrot family. Kingdom: Animals Type: Chordates Subtype: Vertebrates Class: Birds Order: Parrots Family: Parrots Subfamily: True parrots Genus: Amazons Species: Cuban Amazon.
Appearance: Body length 30-35 cm. The main color of the plumage is green with a black edge. The feathers of the frontal part of the head to the crown and around the eyes are white. The plumage of the throat, cheeks and part of the chest is pink-red. The feathers of the ear holes are dark gray. The wing coverts are from blue to light blue. On the abdomen there is a barely noticeable violet-lilac spot. The tail plumage of birds is green with yellow ends and separate red feathers. In females and young birds, blue-pink coloration is usually less pronounced or absent altogether. The beak is straw-yellow with a pinkish tinge, the legs are light brown. The iris is dark brown. Subspecies differ slightly in color and size. Spread: Inhabits Cuba (hence the name) and the adjacent islands: Bahamas, Grand Cayman and Little Cayman. Lifestyle: They live in forests, mainly conifers. Can raid orchards. The birds are not shy and are quite noisy. They live in small flocks (up to 30 individuals). During mating, they are split in pairs. Reproduction: Breeding season is March - August. They nest in old or rotting tree cavities - hollows. There are 2-5 eggs in a clutch. The incubation period is 26-28 days. Be very careful while incubating eggs. Feeding for 8 weeks. Threats and security: Currently rare. Small island populations of these birds are under the threat of complete extinction due to the destruction of forests and the ill-considered introduction of small predators. Listed in Appendix I of SITES. The Cuban Amazon is included in the Red List of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), previously - the IUCN Red List, in the LRnt category - as a species close to endangered species. Classification: The species includes 3-5 subspecies. The Cuban Amazon Amazona leucocephala leucocephala (Linnaeus, 1758) is a nominal subspecies. Body length 32 cm. Inhabits the central and eastern regions of Cuba. Bahamian Cuban Amazon Amazona leucocephala bahamensis (Bryant, 1867) - body length 34 cm. The white area on the head is larger than that of the nominal subspecies. The spot on the abdomen is barely visible or absent. Lives in the Bahamas. Western Cuban Amazon Amazona leucocephala palmarum (Todd, 1916) - body length 32 cm. Darker than the nominal subspecies. The throat and chest "streaks" are red. Lives in the west of Cuba. This subspecies is not distinguished by all ornithologists, since not all birds have such distinctive features in feather color. Many attribute it to the nominal subspecies. Cayman-Brak Cuban Amazon Amazona leucocephala hesterna (Bangs, 1916) - body length 30 cm.The main color of the plumage is with a lemon tint. The spot on the abdomen is more noticeable.The red throat feathers do not connect to the cheeks. Lives on the islands of Little Cayman and Cayman Brac. Cayman Cuban Amazon Amazona leucocephala caymanensis (Cory, 1886) - body length 34 cm. The main color of the plumage is lemon tinged. Only the forehead is white. The cheeks and throat are lighter. Lives on about. Grand Cayman. This subspecies is not distinguished by all ornithologists, since not all birds have such distinctive features in feather color. Many attribute it to the nominal subspecies.
The frontal part of the head of the yellow-headed Amazon is colored yellow (cheeks, forehead, area around the eyes), and red blotches are present on the wings. In young parrots, the plumage color is pale, but as the birds mature, it becomes rich green.
Yellow-headed Amazons with regular training can become champions among imitators. They are able to imitate humans, animals and birds. Parrot owners claim that their pets can memorize about 100 words, pronounce them meaningfully and always in the right place.
Red-faced Amazons are characterized by the presence of red feathers on the forehead, lilac blotches on the back of the head and bright yellow spots on the cheeks. These birds are able to imitate human speech and reproduce any sounds they like. During puberty, males can show aggression towards the owner.
Can you teach to speak
Red-fronted Amazon parrot.
Amazon parrots can learn up to 80 words, imitate sounds made by wild birds, animals, musical instruments, and household appliances.
They love to be in the spotlight, easily master simple tricks and happily perform them in front of the audience. Birds memorize situations and phrases that correspond to them, imitate the timbre and intonation of a person.
Where to buy, price and what to look for when buying
You can buy Amazons from private breeders or in specialized nurseries in Moscow, Perm, Nizhny Novgorod and other large cities. The cost of each bird is determined individually, taking into account several factors: gender, age, species, color and region of sale.
The cost of wild parrots caught in tropical forests and illegally imported into the country is 15-20 thousand rubles, fosterlings (chicks fed by humans and tamed) are 2-4 times more expensive.
When buying a chick, you need to check the correctness of filling out the veterinary passport and make sure that there is a non-removable ring on which the age of the Amazon is indicated. It is useful to talk to a future friend and evaluate his behavior.
Fosterlings have a peaceful character and a healthy psyche, they quickly make contact, and after 1-2 months of systematic training they begin to speak. If the bird screams, growls or is frightened, it is better not to buy it. No matter how the seller assures that the parrot will soon adapt and become tame, you should not believe his promises.
Learning words, phrases and songs will be easier if you purchase a young bird, whose age does not exceed 4-12 months. In grown-up chicks, the iris of the eyes is painted in a dirty gray-brown color; in birds older than 2-3 years, it becomes rich brown, chestnut, red-orange or red. Adults do not respond well to training and learning, they practically do not speak, and it takes a long time to get used to their new owners.