The official name of the sea plover is Charadrius alexandrinus. The bird lives on the insular part, likes to nest in open areas. She inhabits the northern part, adaptive. The small size does not affect the speed of the plover. It is distinguished by good endurance, but the population is still under threat.
Plover Charadrius alexandrinus
History of the species
The main bird habitat is the north of the country. Populations all over the world are numerous and do not need special protection. On the territory of Russia, for a number of reasons, a different situation has developed. The bird is endangered.
Charadrius alexandrinus is absent from the International Red Data Book. In Russia, the population is decreasing for 2 main reasons:
- development of territories where Charadrius alexandrinus usually nests,
- severe pollution of the territory in the north of the country.
Together, both factors led to a very rapid decline in the population. As a result, Charadrius alexandrinus is included in the Red Book of Russia.
The sea plover looks like a small bird, more like a sparrow. Its distinctive features are color, body structure. The species belongs to migratory, the color of the plumage partially changes according to the seasons.
Males and females differ, but not significantly. The male has a brown-gray, moderately uniform color. The neck area has a red tint. The feathers are white below. The belly is similar in color to the forehead, where there is a white strip of feathers. There are 2 white stripes above and below the eyes. The circle near the eye is dark, it turns into a dark color of feathers around the beak.
The crown of the male and female is equally dark. It has a black spot with clear boundaries. A gray surface extends from it to the neck. Then there are white feathers again. There are dark spots on the sides near the wings. Legs, beak almost black, uniform color.
The female is slightly lighter than the male. She is slightly less in weight. There is black on the crown of the head, but not always. The main color may vary slightly depending on the area of residence of the flock.
Juveniles are smaller in size, slightly lighter in color. The young are more like females. The appearance of a dark spot indicates that the individual has reached maturity.
Brief description of the species
Zuek prefers to nest near green reservoirs. He chooses an area where there is shelter.
Open terrain is fine, but the main requirement is that there are no large flocks of other species nearby. The small size of the bird does not allow it to defend itself in the event of an attack. Birds huddle in small flocks. This is how they migrate long distances.
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The sea plover, despite its small size, is a kind of predator. It feeds on insects, larvae.
Females and males look for spiders and mollusks near the nests. Weed loves varied food. Adults feed young animals for a long time.
Upon arrival from warm countries, the bird begins to nest. The process takes place just before the laying of eggs. Breeding occurs in late spring when the weather is warm.
Males choose a suitable nesting site. The distance between the nests should always be large. Further the birds build a nest. It is located near rivers and lakes. The male is responsible for arranging the nests.
The socket is a recess like a hole. There are small pebbles around, they serve as protection. The average clutch consists of 3-4 eggs.
A small sandpiper, slightly larger than a sparrow, with a dense build of plovers and a contrasting black and white pattern on the head and chest. It differs from a tie in smaller sizes, a completely black beak (there may be a yellow base of the mandible), a yellow leathery rim around the eye, a black frontal stripe is edged behind by a narrow white stripe. The white longitudinal stripe on the wing is weak and invisible from a distance. The legs are three-toed, buffy-pinkish or dull yellow. The female differs from the male slightly: a narrower yellow ring around the eye and a brownish tint of a black "tie". In winter plumage (second half of summer), black color elements are replaced by sandy-brown ones, yellow bloom appears on the white forehead and "eyebrows", the yellow ocular ring and legs become darker. Juveniles are generally colored in the same way and differ from adults in the presence of a scaly pattern on the back and wings, a dark stripe on the chest is usually torn in the middle. It is best to distinguish them from young neckties in flight due to the absence of a clear white stripe on the wing. In manners, as in other plovers, fast jogging with abrupt stops and bows are very characteristic. Weight 30-50 g, length 14-15, wing 10.9-12.3, span 42-48 cm. //
Common breeding migrant. It lives in river valleys, near fresh and salt lakes, ponds, reservoirs on plains, on small streams, rivers and lakes in mountains at altitudes up to 1850 m, prefers sandy, stony or muddy shores, with no or with sparse vegetation. In spring it appears in March in the southern regions and in April - early May - in the northern and in the mountains. It flies in small flocks of 10-20 birds, the flight is very fast, on the Chokpak pass the last birds were recorded on May 13, 1969. Breeds in separate pairs not far from each other. The nest is located no further than 200-300 m from the water, in a small depression, and is lined with some dry grass or small pebbles. Clutches of 3-4 eggs are laid in April or early May, but nests with eggs were kept until the end of June. Incubation lasts 22-26 days. Chicks hatch from May to late July.Probably, it manages to raise two broods during the summer season; repeated nesting after the loss of the first clutch was also observed. In autumn, up to one or two dozen birds fly away in small flocks, migration begins in August. First, adult birds fly away, young ones fly away a little later. The birds leave the mountains and northern regions in early or mid-September, the southern regions at the end of September .//
It nests everywhere along the shores of lowland water bodies and mountain rivers and small streams. Also widely found on migration.
Sources of information
Gavrilov E. I., Gavrilov A. E. "The Birds of Kazakhstan". Almaty, 2005. E. I. Gavrilov. "Fauna and distribution of birds in Kazakhstan". Almaty, 1999. V.K. Ryabitsev. "Birds of the Urals, Urals and Western Siberia". Yekaterinburg, Ural University Publishing House, 2000.