Bird Families

Xylocopa violacea, purple carpenter bumblebee


Black holes cannot be seen, they are indicated by various indirect data. White holes opposite to them in properties exist only in theory, but scientists have observations and guesses about how they look, where they are and what properties they have. Let's talk about this in more detail.

What are white holes?

A white hole is a hypothetical physical object in the Universe, into the area of ​​which nothing can enter. A white hole is the temporal opposite of a black hole and is predicted by the same equations of general relativity. Most physicists are convinced that in principle there cannot be white holes in nature.

It is assumed that white holes can be formed when the substance of a black hole, located in the opposite direction of the thermodynamic arrow of time, leaves the event horizon.

In this case, the complete space-time map contains both black and white holes, and in principle there cannot be a separate formation of only a "pure" black or only a "pure" white hole on a complete map of space-time.

In the 1960s, the Soviet theoretical physicist Igor Novikov (ASC FIAN), proceeding from the theory of relativity, came to the conclusion that there should be objects in space with the opposite properties to black holes. He called them white holes.

The complete Schwarzschild solution contains both black and white holes. It is believed that Schwarzschild white holes does not exist at the moment. The complete Kerr solution contains both black and white holes. A Kerr white hole (the result of the Kerr solution for black holes) forms in one universe when a black hole forms in another.

The history of the emergence of the theory of white holes

For the first time, astrophysicists from Israel spoke about white holes - Shlomo Heller and Alan Retter said that the source of an incomprehensible burst of gamma radiation, which was assigned the number GRB060614, was a white hole.

The outbreak was registered in 2006. Scientists claim that this type of gamma radiation occurs during the birth of black holes and is divided into two types. Long flares last about 2 seconds and occur as a result of the transformation of massive stars into black holes and short, less than a second, they occur after the collision of two neutron stars.

Anomalous burst GRB 060614 was unusual because the flare lasted over 100 seconds, but no black hole was formed there.

Scientists argue that if we assume the existence of white holes, then we can imagine that there was an ejection of matter from a black hole, which was beyond the event horizon. A phenomenon has occurred that is the opposite of the process taking place inside a black hole, attracting everything to itself as a result of incredibly powerful gravitational forces.

What does a white hole look like?

Imagine a sphere of such a monstrous mass that you can only break away from its surface at the speed of light. This is a black hole. Its radius is called gravitational. If all the material of the Sun is compacted into a sphere with a radius of three kilometers, it will turn into a black hole.

The gravitational radius is also called the event horizon. If behind it, inside the sphere, some object falls, for example, a spaceship or a piece of stellar matter, then it will not return back. Huge gravitational forces will pull it into a black hole and there will tear it apart into elementary particles.

Atoms from a black hole fall into a white hole and instantly fly out of it, but in a different universe. And they fly out of the future into the past. A white hole is a black hole reversed in time.

White holes are unstable. As matter is formed in them, gravitational forces grow and at some point collapse the object, turning it into a black hole.

Perhaps all the white holes that formed immediately after the Big Bang are now literally dead, so we can't see them.

Where to look for white holes?

Quasars - the brightest space objects in space and active galactic nuclei - were tried on for the role of white holes. Scientists Alon Retter and Shlomo Heller suggested that white holes are completely spontaneously born in space and, having thrown out all the matter at once, die.

They cannot be regarded as cosmic bodies; rather, they are “windows” in the Universe, living for only a few minutes. It is impossible to predict the time and place of birth of white holes.

According to Retter and Heller, gamma-ray bursts are the most suitable for the role of such spontaneous windows, which are the strongest explosions with the radiation of high-energy particles, which lasts two seconds or more. Their traces are observed in different regions of the Universe for many billions of light years from us. If a gamma-ray burst happened nearby, life on Earth would be quickly destroyed.

What events can be associated with white holes?

Israeli astronomers Alon Retter and Shlomo Heller speculate that the anomalous GRB 060614 gamma-ray burst that occurred in 2006 was a white hole. Alon Retter believes that white holes, having arisen, immediately disintegrate, a process similar to the Big Bang Retter and his colleagues called it "Small Bang".

GRB 060614 is a GRB detected on June 14, 2006 by the Swift Orbiting Observatory. The unusual properties of this burst called into question the scientific consensus that had developed by that time regarding the predecessors of gamma-ray bursts and black holes.

All previously detected gamma-ray bursts were divided into two categories: long (more than 2 seconds) and short. The alleged source of the long bursts is massive stars very distant from Earth at the time of their collapse into a black hole. This mechanism for the formation of a gamma-ray burst suggests that it should be followed by a supernova explosion.

Possible sources of short bursts have been cited as the merger of two neutron stars to form a black hole, the merger of a neutron star and a black hole, or the merger of two black holes. In addition to the burst duration, the categories also differ in the average energy (frequency) of gamma quanta; in short bursts, it is much higher.

GRB 060614 did not fit into the available observation pattern. The duration of the gamma-ray burst was 102 seconds, the X-ray afterglow lasted more than a week. It was recorded in a galaxy in the constellation of the Indian, 1.6 billion light-years from Earth. The time extent of GRB 060614 testified to its belonging to the category of long bursts.

The dominant theory of long bursts predicted the detection of a massive supernova by optical observations. However, none of the observatories that observed this region of the sky found either a supernova or spectral signatures of nickel-56 atoms, which should form when the star collapses.

The parent galaxy of the source GRB 060614 is small (about one hundredth the weight of the Milky Way) and contains very few stars that could become a supernova or the source of a long burst.

At the same time, according to the observational data, GRB 060614 can be divided into two parts: an initial pulse with a duration of less than 5 seconds from high-energy gamma quanta and a subsequent stream of almost 100 seconds from gamma quanta with lower energy. The observations of short bursts with a similar radiation pattern already available at that time could give reason to classify GRB 060614 to the same class, but it was about 8 times more powerful.

Scientists' position on white holes

No one has yet managed to detect a white hole, so far it is only a theory that seems bright and interesting enough. Proponents of this theory believe that they are difficult to find, because they are located in areas where there is no cosmic substance, since it is capable of destroying a white hole. One atom can make such an object unstable and it will explode.

At present, there are no known physical objects that can be reliably considered white holes, the theoretical mechanisms of their formation are also unknown in addition to the relict - immediately after the Big Bang, and there are no prerequisites for the methods of their search (unlike black holes, which should be located, for example, in large spiral galaxies).

Description of appearance and characteristic features

The carpenter bumblebee under the Latin name "Xylocopa violacea" belongs to the Apidae family (true bees) and the genus Xylocopes (carpenter bees). The insect has an impressive size, which adds a certain flavor. This is reflected in the perception - it seems that the bumblebee is showing aggressiveness.

Features of the appearance of the bumblebee carpenter:

  • color - black body color with bluish tints on the abdomen, head,
  • length - from 2 to 3 cm,
  • hairs are sparse, parts of the body look smooth, varnish,
  • wings - dark, blue-violet,
  • head - large, equipped with a powerful jaw,
  • antennae - black with reddish spots at the ends,
  • pubescent parts - paws, back of the abdomen.
  • the presence of a sting, which insects sometimes use.

Males and females differ somewhat in appearance. In males, the hind legs are equipped with teeth. Females have a smooth platform, along the edges there are small sharp processes. In males, gray hairs are visible on the back.

It is interesting! There is a species similar in appearance - a large black insect, color and size similar to a carpenter bumblebee. They often live in the same territory. This is an earthen bumblebee.

Lifestyle and habitat of carpenter bumblebees

The black bumblebee carpenter is considered a heat-loving insect, therefore, the southern regions and territories of the Middle Strip are suitable for habitation. However, due to global warming, the bumblebee is moving to cooler areas.

Geographic distribution of carpenter bumblebees:

  • Ukraine, Belarus,
  • Russia - southern and western regions, Novosibirsk,
  • Crimean peninsula,
  • Turkey, Middle East, Western Asia,
  • Caucasus mountains,
  • countries of southern Europe,
  • south of Great Britain.

After wintering, bumblebees fly out in April, and are active until September. During this time, the females have time to mate and lay eggs. The bumblebee nests in wood devices. These are dry trees, pillars, buildings and fences. In the selected place, the insect gnaws through passages, in which it creates up to 12 cells with partitions.

On a note! Bumblebees-carpenters settle only in sunny territory, avoiding shade. Insects often live near humans.

If ordinary bees have a strict hierarchy in families, then carpenter bumblebees are characterized by a solitary lifestyle. Insects do not have a queen and a large detachment of toilers. The female independently forms the nest, takes care of the brood. Sometimes bumblebees form small colonies.

Other features of bumblebee carpenters:

  • a seasonal lifestyle for six months - sometimes adults live for 2 seasons, as they remain for wintering in a special hole in the woody substrate,
  • endurance, the ability to fly long distances for food,
  • no fear of bad weather, rain or wind,
  • perseverance of young animals with adults - up to 10 generations live in one nest.

Mating games are observed among black bumblebees-carpenters. The male begins to court the female in the spring. It climbs as high as possible, then buzzes to get attention. If the female does not react, the male will climb into the nest, which resembles the courtship period in birds.

Purple bumblebee feeding and breeding

Purple adult carpenter bumblebee eats, like bees, flower nectar, honey, pollen grains. Microbes activate the transfer of food to bee bread, which is eaten by young animals or adults. The secret of the glands turns the bee bread into royal jelly, which the bumblebees use to feed the larvae.

The female is looking for a partner for fertilization in the spring. At the same time, competition is observed - insects defend their territory. Males are polygamous, as the carpenter bumblebee mates with 3-5 females per season.

Development stages of carpenter bumblebees:

  • the female forms a nest, gnawing holes in the wood with a powerful jaw,
  • puts a supply of pollen with nectar at the bottom of each cell,
  • lays an egg in the nutritive mass - 1 piece per recess,
  • creates a protective layer on top of sawdust connected by saliva,
  • over the sealed cell, the female again places a nutrient mixture in which she lays an egg - a multi-storey house is obtained,
  • the uterus lives until autumn, protecting the nest, and dies by winter.

The larvae hatched from the eggs become pupae by the fall. Then young animals emerge from the cocoons, which remain in the cells for the winter. From April to May, bumblebees gnaw through the protective cocoon and fly out for food. New females are looking for their own nesting site.

On a note! The main condition when choosing a place for masonry is the dryness of the material. Fresh wood is not suitable for placing eggs there. In one place, if possible, several females make moves next to each other.

The usefulness and harm of an insect

The carpenter bumblebee is an insect that feeds on nectar and pollen from a large number of plants. In addition, adults fly long distances and are not afraid of bad weather. Therefore, the benefit lies in pollination of trees, shrubs or crops.

Interesting fact! Insects create nests only in dry and soft woody structures. Females will never settle in fresh material, since the jaws will not be able to gnaw through the passages. This means that the settlement of bumblebees-carpenters in buildings, sheds or fences indicates the need for repair.

A carpenter bumblebee with a black and purple coloration is dangerous to humans. The insect bite is painful. Watch out for these bumblebees especially in case of allergy to bumblebee venom. Only females can sting, but they will never attack without reason. Bumblebee carpenters exude peacefulness. Having met a person, the insect will simply fly away, sting only when the nest is threatened.

Rules of action for a carpenter bumblebee bite

If a large bumblebee carpenter still attacked, then you will need to provide assistance correctly. The bite site turns red, swells, hurts. If you are allergic to proteins and other substances from the venom, there are serious side effects, especially from a bumblebee bite in the neck or head. Therefore, it is important to be aware of the symptoms and actions that can prevent serious consequences from an insect attack.

Symptoms and effects of bumblebee bites

After a bumblebee bite, a smooth sting either remains under the skin or not. However, the symptoms do not change because of this. Everything is aggravated if a person has an allergic reaction to the components of the injected poison.

Characteristic signs of a bumblebee bite:

  • soreness
  • local temperature rise,
  • itching, burning, redness,
  • swelling, swelling,
  • compaction of the lesion site.

The onset of symptoms occurs in the first minutes after the sting digs under the skin. A peculiar reaction usually lasts several days, depending on the characteristics of the organism. If you scratch the bite site, then the problem will only worsen and drag on for a long time.

The negative effects are associated with allergies. Examples:

  • extensive redness and swelling beyond the bite site,
  • the appearance of a rash, large blisters on the body,
  • gastrointestinal tract reaction - nausea, vomiting, diarrhea,
  • breathing difficulties, choking,
  • chills, general fever, fever,
  • interruptions in the work of the heart or blood vessels.

With a sharp and powerful allergic response, it is likely that anaphylactic shock will occur. There is a lack of air, convulsions, dizziness, loss of consciousness. No less dangerous are multiple bites, which are characterized by general weakness, nausea, and a change in heart rate.

First aid for a black and blue bumblebee attack

After the bumblebee stings, a number of actions are required to reduce the onset of symptoms and prevent serious consequences. These are usually fairly standard procedures for an insect bite. Instructions:

  1. Remove the sting if it remains in the skin so that high intoxication does not develop.
  2. Treat the affected area with an antiseptic solution (potassium permanganate, hydrogen peroxide, alcohol) - reducing the risk of secondary infection.
  3. Make a cold compress to relieve pain, reduce swelling.
  4. Take an antihistamine to relieve or prevent allergy symptoms.
  5. Drink plenty of liquid to remove toxic substances from the body.
  6. Call an ambulance immediately if you feel unwell quickly.

At the same time, it is forbidden to kill the insect, as other members of the family may flock. It is also recommended to refrain from scratching, as this spreads the infection. The use of sleeping pills or alcoholic beverages is unacceptable.

Allergic reaction to bumblebee venom

After the bite, poison and insect saliva are injected into the blood. Some people develop an allergic response to the toxin or proteins. This reaction does not occur immediately. The first contact with a bumblebee produces antibodies. When the antigen (allergen) gets in again, the characteristic symptoms of an allergic response are already manifested.

Antihistamines for a bumblebee bite: Psilo-balm, Fenistil-gel, Claritin and Suprastin.

Prevention of an attack

It is recommended to avoid attacks of bumblebees-carpenters according to the following rules: do not make sudden gestures, do not walk barefoot on the grass. In addition, in nature, it is better not to wear bright clothes and not to use perfume with a pungent aroma, to minimize the area of ​​open areas of the body. Nets on windows help from flying insects. If there is sweet food or fruit nearby, then you need to make sure that bumblebees do not sit down.

Insect control methods

If colonies of carpenter bumblebees are found in the wood on the site or in the local area, then it is recommended to get rid of insects. This is done in a variety of ways.

Measures for the extermination of bumblebees:

  • board traps with a bottle filled with water inside,
  • traps with ultraviolet lamps,
  • elimination of nests with diesel fuel, gasoline or soapy water,
  • location on the site of a device that makes loud sounds - you can regularly turn on music (this way bumblebees will leave the site faster),
  • processing of places of accumulation with smelling sprays or herbal decoctions with mint, lavender, thyme or onions,
  • destruction of bumblebee larvae - filling the nests with machine oil.

The black bumblebee looks like a large bee with a sleek body and blue wings. However, insects differ in behavior. Bumblebees-carpenters do not live in a strict class division of the family, but prefer to build nests on their own, sometimes forming small colonies of females. At the end of the body, females have a sting, unlike males. Therefore, bumblebees are dangerous to humans, although they rarely bite, as they are often set up without aggression.

Ⓘ Black Corpses

  • Agelaius assimilis Lembeye, 1850
  • Yellow-shouldered black corpse Agelaius xanthomus Sclater, 1862
  • Rust-headed black corpse Agelaius ruficapillus Vieillot, 1819
  • Tricolor black corpse Agelaius tricolor Audubon, 1837
  • Golden-shouldered black corpse Agelaius thilius Molina, 1782
  • Monochrome black corpse Agelaius cyanopus Vieillot, 1819
  • Red-shouldered black corpse Agelaius phoeniceus Linnaeus, 1766
  • Chestnut-winged black corpse Agelaius humeralis Vigors, 1827
  • Yellow-eyed black corpse Agelaius xanthophthalmus Short, 1969

Article source:

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