Bird Families

Rainbow Bee-eater / Merops ornatus

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List of birds of the island of Sulawesi (Indonesia) Part 1 - Non-passerines

By tradition, I present a report on my visit to Sulawesi in August 2015, as usual this report is made in the form of illustrated lists of animals encountered. I hope it will be useful to nature lovers who are going to visit Sulawesi.

Latin and English names are given in accordance with the IOC World Bird List Ver.6 and verified according to the AVIBASE website (http://avibase.bsc-eoc.org).
Russian names are mainly in accordance with Boehme, Flint, "A five-language dictionary of animal names. Birds". But already much more often I cite new, changed names of birds, mentioned both in modern literature and in friendly conversations.
I keep the continuous numbering of the birds I have met and photographed. These numbers are shown in brackets after the serial number of the list.
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GALLIFORMES - Megapodiidae
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1 (1323) Philippine Scrubfowl (Philippine Scrubfowl, Megapodius cumingii gilbertii)

On August 12 and 13, several pairs in the Tangkoko Batuangus Nature Reserve.

ACCIPITRIFORMES - Accipitridae
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2731
2 (1324) Sulawesi Serpent Eagle, Spilornis rufipectus rufipectus)

Endemic to Sulawesi and adjacent islets.

On August 14, one bird rested among the branches on a mountainside near the Tangkoko Batuangus Nature Reserve.


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Egg-eating eagle (Black Eagle, Ictinaetus malaiensis malaiensis)

On August 15, it flew twice over the forest on the Mahawu volcano (Gunung Mahawu, Tomohon, Minahasa Regency).
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3 Black Kite Milvus migrans affinis)

On August 14, one bird hovered over rice fields near Tondano city (Minahasa Regency).


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4 White-bellied Sea Eagle, Haliaeetus leucogaster)

On 14 August, one young bird flew over Mama Roos Homestay, BatuPutih, Tangkoko.


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GRUIFORMES - Rallidae
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5 (1325) Zebra Shepherd (Barred Rail, Gallirallus torquatus celebensis)

Synonym: Hypotaenidia torquata.

On August 13, early in the morning, there are more than two birds in the Tangkoko Batuangus Nature Reserve.
Several birds were seen on the side of the road on the morning of 16 August en route from the Mountain View Resort in Monado (Tomohon, Minahasa Regency).


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6 (1326) White-browed Crake, Porzana cinerea)

Synonym: Amaurornis cinerea.

On August 14, several birds in rice fields near Tondano city (Minahasa Regency).
One male tried to court the female.


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CHARADRIIFORMES - Recurvirostridae
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7 Australian Stilt (White-headed Stilt, Himantopus leucocephalus)

Synonym: Himantopus himantopus leucocephalus.

On August 14, several birds in rice fields near Tondano city (Minahasa Regency).


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COLUMBIFORMES - Columbidae
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8 (1327) Slender-billed Cuckoo-Dove, Macropygia amboinensis albicapilla)

On August 14, one bird on a mountainside near the Tangkoko Batuangus Nature Reserve.
Saw one bird in the evening on 15 August while walking down the hill from Mountain View Resort (Tomohon, Minahasa Regency).
On August 16, in the morning, up to 10 birds were feeding near the Mountain View Resort (Tomohon, Minahasa Regency).


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9 (1328) White-faced Dove Turacoena manadensis)

Synonym: White-faced Cuckoo-Dove.

On August 13, we met in the Tangkoko Batuangus Nature Reserve.
One bird was found on a forest road.


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10 Gray-cheeked Green Pigeon, Treron griseicauda wallacei)

On August 13, a flock of birds in the Tangkoko Batuangus Nature Reserve.
On August 14, several birds in the early morning on a mountainside near the Tangkoko Batuangus Nature Reserve.


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11 (1329) Superb Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus superbus temminckii)

Some taxonomists, including HBW, distinguish this pigeon subspecies as a separate species.
Western Superb Fruit-dove (Ptilinopus temminckii).

On August 15, one bird on the Mahawu volcano (Gunung Mahawu, Tomohon, Minahasa Regency).


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12 (1330) Black-occipital variegated pigeon (Black-naped Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus melanospilus melanospilus)

From August 12 to 14, they met in the Tangkoko Nature Reserve (Tangkoko Batuangus Nature Reserve).

The photo shows a female pigeon


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13 Muscat frugivorous pigeon (Green Imperial Pigeon, Ducula aenea paulina)

On August 11, a couple of birds were seen on an observation deck en route to Batu Putih (Tangkoko).
Several birds were seen in the Tangkoko Batuangus Nature Reserve on 13 August.
On August 14, a pair of birds in the morning on a mountainside near the Tangkoko Batuangus Nature Reserve.

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14 (1331) (Silver-tipped Imperial Pigeon, Ducula luctuosa)

Synonym: White Imperial-Pigeon.

Endemic to Sulawesi and adjacent islets.

On August 11, one bird was seen on the observation deck en route to Batu Putih (Tangkoko).
On August 12, early in the morning, one bird at Mama Roos Homestay, BatuPutih, Tangkoko.
Several birds were seen in the Tangkoko Batuangus Nature Reserve on 13 August.


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CUCULIFORMES - Cuculidae
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15 (1432) Celebes clawed cuckoo (Bay Coucal, Centropus celebensis celebensis)

On the evening of 14 August, I saw one bird while walking down the slope from Mountain View Resort & SPA (Tomohon, Minahasa Regency).
The bird was feeding in a clump of low grassy bush.
On August 15, we saw a couple of birds in similar bushes while traveling in the vicinity of Tomogon.


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16 (1433) Pied-billed bush cuckoo (Yellow-billed Malkoha, Rhamphococcyx calyorhynchus calyorhynchus)

On 13 August, two birds were seen in the Tangkoko Batuangus Nature Reserve.
On August 14, one bird at Mama Roos Homestay, BatuPutih, Tangkoko.
On August 16, I met at the Mountain View Resort (Tomohon, Minahasa Regency).


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Black-billed Koel, Eudynamys melanorhynchus)

The Russian name is a translation of the English name.

Synonyms: Eudynamys scolopacea melanorhynchus, Eudynamys orientalis melanorhynchus.

Endemic to the islands of Sulawesi and Sula.

13 August only heard at Tangkoko Batuangus Nature Reserve.
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STRIGIFORMES - Strigidae
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Indonesian scops owl (Sulawesi Scops Owl, Otus manadensis manadensis)

On August 12 and 13, I heard at night at Mama Roos Homestay (BatuPutih, Tangkoko).
On August 12, an attempt to lure into a voice in the dark failed, the bird responded, but did not fly up (Tangkoko Batuangus Nature Reserve).
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17 (1334) Yellow-bellied needle-footed owl (Ocher-bellied Boobook, Ninox ochracea)

On August 12, one young bird is dipping in the Tangkoko Batuangus Nature Reserve.


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CAPRIMULGIFORMES - Caprimulgidae
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18 (1335) Great South Asian Nightjar (Great Eared Nightjar, Lyncornis macrotis macropterus)

Synonyms: Big-eared nightjar, Eurostopodus macrotis.

On August 13, two juveniles are daylighting in the Tangkoko Batuangus Nature Reserve.


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APODIFORMES - Apodidae
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White-bellied swiftlet (Glossy Swiftlet, Collocalia esculenta spilura)

From 21 to 23 August are usual in flight in the city of Manado.
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CORACIIFORMES - Coraciidae
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19 (1336) Sulawesian Roller (Purple-winged Roller, Coracias temminckii)

Synonym: Sulawesi Roller.

Endemic to Sulawasi and surrounding islands.

On August 13, one bird in the Tangkoko Batuangus Nature Reserve.


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CORACIIFORMES - Alcedinidae
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20 (1337) Sulawesian alcyone (Green-backed Kingfisher, Actenoides monachus monachus)

Synonym: Blue-headed Kingfisher.

On 12 and 13 August, solitary birds were frequently seen in the Tangkoko Batuangus Nature Reserve.
Usually the kingfisher sat deep in the forest on the perch and was quite calm about the observer.


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Royal Alcyone (Scaly-breasted Kingfisher, Actenoides princeps princeps)

On the morning of August 15, we heard in two locations during a hike on the Mahawu volcano (Gunung Mahawu, Tomohon, Minahasa Regency).
Once we saw a bird flying in a dark forest. Without photo.
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21 (1338) Blue-eared kingfisher (Lilac Kingfisher, Cittura cyanotis)

Several taxonomists (including HBW) have divided the species into two, in this case the kingfisher is called the Sulawesi Lilac Kingfisher.

Endemic to Sulawasi and Sangihe Islands.

On August 13, a pair of birds in the Tangkoko Batuangus Nature Reserve.


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22 Sacred Kingfisher ( Todiramphus sanctus sanctus)

On August 15, a pair of birds on a wire near rice fields (Tomohon, Minahasa Regency).
On August 16, in the morning, I saw one bird on a wire near the Mountain View Resort (Tomohon, Minahasa Regency).


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23 (1339) Sulawesi forest kingfisher (Sulawesi Dwarf Kingfisher, Ceyx fallax fallax)

On August 12, one bird in the Tangkoko Batuangus Nature Reserve.


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CORACIIFORMES - Meropidae
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24 (1340) Rainbow Bee-eater, Merops ornatus)

Early in the morning on August 12, up to five birds in the Tangkoko Batuangus Nature Reserve.


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BUCEROTIFORMES - Bucerotidae
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25 (1341) Sulawesian kalao (Knobbed Hornbill, Aceros cassidix)

Synonym: Rhyticeros cassidix.

On August 12, a pair of birds near a nesting tree hole in the Tangkoko Batuangus Nature Reserve.
On August 14, a pair of birds in flight near the Tangkoko Batuangus Nature Reserve.


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PICIFORMES - Picidae
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26 (1342) (Sulawesi Pygmy Woodpecker, Dendrocopos temminckii)

On August 14, a pair of birds in the early morning on a mountainside near the Tangkoko Batuangus Nature Reserve.


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27 (1343) Sulawesian Müller Woodpecker (Ashy Woodpecker, Mulleripicus fulvus fulvus)

Endemic to Sulawesi and adjacent islets.

August 12 up to five birds in the Tangkoko Batuangus Nature Reserve.


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PSITTACIFORMES - Psittacidae
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28 (1344) Sulawesian red-capped hanging parrot (Great Hanging Parrot, Loriculus stigmatus stigmatus)

Synonym: Sulawesi Hanging-Parrot.

Endemic to Sulawesi and the surrounding islets.

On August 14, a flock of birds in the morning on a mountainside near the Tangkoko Batuangus Nature Reserve.


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29 (1345) Sulawesian Green Hanging Parrot (Pygmy Hanging Parrot, Loriculus exilis)

Endemic to Sulawasi and the Buton Islands.

On August 14, early in the morning, a flock was seen in flight on a mountainside near the Tangkoko Batuangus Nature Reserve.
Later, one bird (with a smaller size and a red beak) was seen among the red-capped parrots.


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30 (1346) Ornate Lorikeet, Trichoglossus ornatus)

Endemic to Sulawasi and surrounding islands.

Several birds were seen in the Tangkoko Batuangus Nature Reserve on 12 and 13 August.


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31 (1347) Yellow-breasted Racket-tail, Prioniturus flavicans)

On August 14, a group of birds in flight early in the morning on a mountainside near the Tangkoko Batuangus Nature Reserve.
One parrot sat for a long time on the top of a tree and allowed himself to be photographed.


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Müller's noble parrot (Blue-backed Parrot, Tanygnathus sumatranus sumatranus)

On August 12, we met in the Tangkoko Batuangus Nature Reserve. Without photo.
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Introduction

Bee-eater, bee-eater(Merops ornatus) - a kind of sivorakshapodibny birds. Lives in Australia. The rainbow bee-eaters are adorned with multicolored, brightly colored feathers. It is a small and very mobile bird. Its main food is bees, which the bee-eater deftly deprives of its dangerous sting before it eats.

1. Areal

In summer, the rainbow bee-eater lives in most of Australia and Tasmania, with the exception of forest areas. It winters in northern Australia, New Guinea and the islands of Indonesia.

2. Lifestyle

Rainbow Bee-eaters are social birds. Only during the nesting period do birds keep in pairs. The whole flock of rainbow bee-eaters settle down for the night in dense bushes or in large trees. These "sleeping rooms" are so crowded that the birds touch each other with their wings. Another "social event" is sunbathing. Birds sit on tree branches and expose their backs to the rays of the sun. Bee-eaters often fly from the tree to the ground, where they bathe in the sand. Thanks to the sanding procedures, they clean the feathers and get rid of parasites. Bee-eaters nest in arid areas with light forests of deciduous trees.

3. Nutrition

Rainbow bjoloids have a habit of sitting on telegraph poles or branches of dead trees, from where they observe potential prey. Birds turn their heads in different directions in order to see everything around them and watch out for insects flying by. These birds notice the bee at a distance of 5-10 meters and immediately rush at it. Only dexterous insects manage to avoid the beak of the Bee-eater. Birds hunt bees, they are insensitive to their poison, however, having caught a bee, the bird first deprives it of its sting. The procedure for separating the sting is carried out by the bird very dexterously: the rainbow bee-eater holds the bee in its beak and rubs its abdomen against the branch in order to tear off the sting along with the poisonous gland. The indigestible parts of the prey bee eater spits up.

4. Reproduction

Rainbow Bee-eaters pair up immediately after returning to their nesting sites. The birds greet each other with joyful trills. Part of the mating ritual is the display of a ruffled feather on the head and a wave of the tail. Before mating, the male gives the males a symbolic gift in the form of captured insects. Both birds dig a nesting hole together, which they dig with their strong and sharp beak. At the same time, the birds reject the loosened earth back with their paws. A bee-eater can use both paws at the same time, as it rests on the ground with its beak and bends of the wallpaper of its wings. The bird can deepen the hole by 8 cm in a day.

After mating with a break of two days, the female lays eggs alone. However, the nests of rainbow bjoloids are often plowed up by predators, as a result, the entire clutch dies or the chicks hatch. The main enemies of these birds are large lizards, wild dogs and foxes. The hatched chicks are fed by both parents. The family keeps together even after the chicks get on the wing. Young birds help their parents, and sometimes other adult birds, to feed chicks with subsequent clutch.

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