Bird Families

Hawaiian Thrush Palmera / Myadestes palmeri

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Nematobrycon palmeri

Tetra palmeri or royal tetra (Nematobrycon palmeri)

Tetra palmeri - a representative of the family haracin (Characidae)... It was first described in 1911 by the German-American ichthyologist Karl Eigenman. It got into European aquariums in 1959, and was brought to the territory of the USSR in 1965. Natural habitat is the water system of the San Juan River, which flows in Colombia on the northwestern side of the Cordillera.


Appearance and gender differences

The elongated body is slightly flattened laterally, the dorsal line is strongly curved. The jaws are short, the teeth are clearly visible. The caudal fin has a unique, very characteristic three-lobed shape, which is given to it by long central rays. On the dorsal fin, the first rays are saber-shaped. The adipose fin is absent.

The body color is pinkish-brown with a purple or bluish tint. The abdomen is creamy. The fins are greenish-yellow, transparent. From the mouth to the tail, there is a black stripe with a clear at the top and a blurred bottom contour. The sides below the line are colored dark blue. The anal fin has a black line and a yellow edging along the edges. The extreme rays of the tail, the plait and the first ray on the dorsal fin are black. Very expressive eye color - emerald blue.

Males are brighter, larger, tail and dorsal fins are longer and sharper than females, whose fins are shorter and the iris of the eyes is not so bright. The anal fin of the male has a dark border. Females have a more rounded abdomen. Males reach a size of 6 cm, females about 5 cm.

Lifespan of Nematobrycon palmeri up to 5 years.

Breeders have bred the black form of the Royal Tetra - Nematobrycon palmeri black

Conditions of detention

A couple of fish can be kept in a 40-liter container, but it is preferable to keep a flock of 6 individuals in an aquarium of at least 80-100 liters with a predominance of females. The aquarium must be covered with a lid, as the fish can jump out.

The males of the Royal Tetra are territorial - the flock is always "ruled" by one who has captured the largest territory. Protecting their possessions, males swim, slightly leaning forward, the tail raised by 45 degrees at this moment looks like a crown.

In addition to areas free for swimming, the aquarium should have densely planted areas. Well suited Vallisneria, Echinodorus, Curly aponogeton, Cryptocorynes, Thai fern. Floating plants are used to create subdued and diffused lighting. The color of the royal tetra is best shown against the background of dark soil, driftwood and islets of dense vegetation.

Water parameters: 22 - 27 ° С (lower limit 18 ° С, upper 30 ° С), dGH 5 - 18 °, pH 6.0 - 8.0.


Aquarium neighbors

Palmeri are peaceful fish. Compatible with any fish of similar size and temperament.


Feeding

The fish is omnivorous, so it will take both frozen and dry food with equal pleasure. Suitable for feeding are daphnia, bloodworms, tubifex, cyclops, brine shrimp. It is desirable to include herbal supplements in the diet.


Breeding

Reproduction: can reproduce both in a separate and in a general aquarium. Spawning can be paired, but it is better to plant broodstock in a ratio of two females and one male.

Small-leaved plants and a separator net are placed in a 20 liter spawning aquarium. The maximum water level is 15 cm. Water parameters in the spawning grounds: 26 - 28 ° C, dH 4 - 8 °, pH 6.0 - 6.8.

To stimulate spawning, producers are kept separately for 2 weeks and feed mainly on live food. The productivity of the female is low - 50 - 150 eggs. Parents, after spawning, immediately sit down. The water level is reduced to 5 - 10 cm and the aquarium is darkened. Caviar is incubated for 1 - 2 days, fry swim and feed on 4 - 6 days. At first, the fry take ciliates, live dust and rotifers. Later - brine shrimp nauplii.

At the age of one month, a dark longitudinal stripe appears, a week earlier they begin to swim obliquely, which is typical for adult fish. Fish form an adult color at about three months, at which time they all look like females. Males stand out more or less clearly after about a month, and their formation is completely completed after six months, by about six months.

These fish are quite affordable and unpretentious to keep in an aquarium. If you follow simple rules, you can achieve success in breeding them. This is a great experience for anyone with a hobby of aquarium hobby!

Description

The plumage is mostly indescribable with slaty-brown upperparts and light gray chest and belly below. The birds have a black beak and pinkish legs. The white eye ring is also quite prominent and helps distinguish this bird from other Hawaiian thrushes. Men and women are very similar in appearance. The teens show a pattern that transitions from a speckled whitish buff above to a scalloped taupe below.

Distribution and habitat

Historically, this species has always been considered rare, favoring the forested ravines above. Puaiohi is bordered by the center and southern portions of the Alakai Wilderness Conservation Area on the Hawaiian island of Kauai. Seventy-five percent of the breeding population occurs in forests alone.

Diet and behavior

Outside of the breeding season, most (82%) of the diet is fruits and berries, the remainder being insects and other invertebrates. Important food sources include fruits of the native olapa (Cheirodendron trigynum), lapalapa (C. platyphyllum), ōhia ha (Syzygium sandwicensis) and kanawao (Broussaisia ​​spicy)... During the breeding season, more than fifty percent of the diet is passed on to invertebrates. The song is varied, consisting of a simple trill to a complex wheezing and high-pitched squeal, described as a squeak rather reminiscent of the metallic lubrication of a wheel's need. Males sing throughout the year, but do so with increasing frequency as the breeding season approaches, peaking from April to May. The investment was registered from as early as March to as early as mid-September. Nests are built in hollows or overhangs of cliff cliffs hidden by moss and ferns, but tree hollows are also used. Females are the only nest builders, and it can take up to seven days to build the nest. Females also hatch eggs, and brood and feed chicks. The eggs (usually two per clutch) are grayish green to greenish blue with irregular reddish brown spots. Eggs hatch after 13–15 days. After fledging, the male becomes the main food provider for the young, while the female attempts a second brood. Females will also try to re-nest if the first attempt fails.

Status and protection

According to recent data, population estimates range from 200-300 birds and have remained somewhat stable since 1973, although a study published in 1986 estimated the population at about 100-125 birds. The Puaiohi population is vulnerable to drought, hurricanes, and mammalian predation by both eggs and juveniles. Avian malaria also affects many birds, but a few birds have shown some resistance. (K. Atkinson, USGS, unpublished data). Wild pigs and goats also negatively affect bird populations with degraded habitats, as well as competition from many aggressive plants and animals. puaiohi was added to the United States Federal List of Endangered Species on March 11, 1967.

A captive breeding program was established in 1995. Some of the birds from this program are now being taken to Alakai to add a wild population.

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