Bird Families

Flycatcher family - Muscicapidae (Vigors, 1825)

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Shepherd (lat.Rallidae) - a large family of small and medium-sized birds of the order crane-like

Taxonomy

  • Genus West African Red-footed Shepherdess (Himantornis)
    • West African Red-footed Shepherd (Himantornis haematopus)
  • Genus Fluffy Chasers (Sarothrura) (9 species)
    • Pearl fluffy chase (Sarothrura pulchra)
    • Variegated fluffy chase (Sarothrura elegans)
    • Red-breasted fluffy chase (Sarothrura rufa)
    • Chestnut-headed Furry Chasers (Sarothrura lugens)
    • African furry bush (Sarothrura boehmi)
    • Chestnut-tailed bush (Sarothrura affinis)
    • Madagascar furry bush (Sarothrura insularis)
    • Mirror furry chase (Sarothrura ayresi)
    • Lemurian chase (Sarothrura watersi)
  • Genus Gray-throated Shepherdesses (Canirallus)
    • Canirallus cuvieri
    • West African gray-throated shepherd boy (Canirallus oculeus)
    • Madagascar gray-throated shepherd boy (Canirallus kioloides)
  • Genus Yellow Carriages (Coturnicops)
    • Coturnicops ayresi
    • Yellow-headed (Coturnicops noveboracensis)
    • Darwin's yellow pug (Coturnicops notatus)
    • Coturnicops pulchra
  • Genus Ocellated Shepherdesses (Micropygia)
    • Ocellated Shepherd (Micropygia schomburgkii)
  • Genus Rallina (about 8 species)
    • Chestnut Shell (Rallina rubra)
    • White-striped chestnut clam (Rallina leucospila)
    • New Guinea Striped Shrimp (Rallina forbesi)
    • New Guinea Chestnut Chase (Rallina mayri)
    • Tricolor striped shell (Rallina tricolor)
    • Andaman striped claw (Rallina canningi)
    • Red-footed striped claw (Rallina fasciata)
    • Rallina eurizonoides
  • Genus Chestnut-headed shepherdesses (Anurolimnas) (3 species)
    • Chestnut-headed Shepherd (Anurolimnas castaneiceps)
    • Cayenne Shepherd (Anurolimnas viridis)
    • Black-striped cracker (Anurolimnas fasciatus)
  • Clan Tristan Shepherdesses (Atlantisia)
    • Tristan Shepherd Boy (Atlantisia rogersi)
  • Genus Amazonian chasers (Laterallus) (10 species)
    • Red-necked goggle (Laterallus melanophaius)
    • Rust-sided shoulder (Laterallus levraudi)
    • Ruby Slipper (Laterallus ruber)
    • Laterallus albigularis
    • Amazonian carriage (Laterallus exilis)
    • American Black Pug (Laterallus jamaicensis)
    • Laterallus tuerosi
    • Galapagos Shepherd Boy (Laterallus spilonotus)
    • Red and white claw (Laterallus leucopyrrhus)
    • Red-faced shepherd boy (Laterallus xenopterus)
  • Genus Solomon Shepherdesses (Nesoclopeus) (1 living species) (1 recently extinct)
    • Solomon Shepherd (Nesoclopeus woodfordi)
    • Nesoclopeus poecilopterus (extinct)
  • Genus Gallirallus (11-12 living species) (3-5 recently extinct)
    • Ueka Shepherd (Gallirallus australis)
    • Gallirallus lafresnayanus
    • Gallirallus okinawae
    • Striped Shepherd (Gallirallus philippensis)
    • Gallirallus insignis
    • Guaman Shepherd (Gallirallus owstoni)
    • Zebra Shepherd (Gallirallus torquatus)
    • Gallirallus sylvestris
    • Gallirallus sharpei
    • Gallirallus calayanensis
    • Gray-breasted shepherd boy (Gallirallus striatus)
    • Gallirallus pacificus
    • Gallirallus modestus
    • Gallirallus dieffenbachii
    • Gallirallus wakensis
    • Gallirallus rovianae
  • Genus † Cabalus (extinct, sometimes included in the genus Gallirallus)
    • Cabalus modestus (extinct)
  • Genus Shepherdess (Rallus) (approx. 9 living species)
  • Genus Lewinia (3 species) (sometimes included in the genus Rallus)
    • Australian Shepherd (Lewinia pectoralis)
    • Lewinia mirifica
    • Lewinia muelleri
  • Genus Cuvierian shepherdesses (Dryolimnas) (1 living species) (1 recently extinct)
    • Cuvier shepherd boy (Dryolimnas cuvieri)
    • Dryolimnas augusti (extinct)
  • Genus African crake (Crecopsis) (sometimes included in the genus Crex)
    • African crake (Crecopsis egregia)
  • Rod Crake (Crex)
    • Crake (Crex crex)
  • Genus Brown Shepherdesses (Rougetius)
    • Brown Shepherd (Rougetius rougetii)
  • Genus Sulawesian Shepherdesses (Aramidopsis)
    • Sulawesian Shepherd Boy (Aramidopsis plateni)
  • Genus Forest Shepherdesses (Aramides) (8-9 living species) (1 possibly recently extinct)
    • Aramides gutturalis (possibly extinct)
    • Lesser Forest Shepherd (Aramides mangle)
    • Brown-headed Forest Shepherd (Aramides axillaris)
    • Gray-necked Forest Shepherd (Aramides cajanea)
    • Brown Forest Shepherd (Aramides wolfi)
    • Giant Forest Shepherd (Aramides ypecaha)
    • Black-breasted Forest Shepherd (Aramides saracura)
    • Red-winged forest shepherd (Aramides calopterus)
  • Genus One-flowered shepherdesses (Amaurolimnas)
    • Monochrome shepherd boy (Amaurolimnas castaneiceps)
  • Genus Eye-eyed shepherdesses (Gymnocrex) (3 species)
    • Sulawesian goggle-eyed shepherd boy (Gymnocrex rosenbergii)
    • Gymnocrex talaudensis
    • Big-eyed shepherd boy (Gymnocrex plumbeiventris)
  • Genus Small shepherdesses (Amaurornis) (9 species)
    • Brown Lesser Shepherd (Amaurornis akool)
    • Filipino Shepherd Boy (Amaurornis olivaceus)
    • Sulawesian shepherd boy (Amaurornis isabellina)
    • Amaurornis moluccana
    • White-breasted Lesser Shepherd (Amaurornis phoenicurus)
    • Black Dergach (Amaurornis flavirostra)
    • Olivier shepherd boy (Amaurornis olivieri)
    • Amaurornis bicolor
    • Amaurornis magnirostris
  • Genus Porzana (13 living species) (4-5 recently extinct)
  • Genus striped straps (Aenigmatolimnas)
    • Striped claw (Aenigmatolimnas marginalis)
  • Genus Cuban Purses (Cyanolimnas)
    • Cuban Chase (Cyanolimnas cerverai)
  • Genus Golden-billed shepherdesses (Neocrex) (2 species)
    • Neocrex colombianus
    • Gold-billed Shepherd (Neocrex erythrops)
  • Genus Pardirallus (3 species)
    • Pardirallus maculatus
    • Mourning shepherd boy (Pardirallus nigricans)
    • Lead-gray shepherd boy (Pardirallus sanguinolentus)
  • Genus Mangrove Shepherdesses (Eulabeornis)
    • Chestnut-breasted Mangrove Shepherd (Eulabeornis castaneoventris)
  • Genus of Shepherdess-Drummers (Habroptila)
    • Drummer Shepherd (Habroptila wallacii)
  • Genus New Guinea Mangrove Shepherds (Megacrex)
    • New Guinea Mangrove Shepherd (Megacrex inepta)
  • Genus Horned moorhen (Gallicrex)
  • Genus Sultanka (Porphyrio) (6 living species) (2-5 recently extinct)
  • Genus Gallinula (7-9 living species) (1-3 recently extinct, incl. Pareudiastes and Edithornis)
  • Genus Lysukha (Fulica) (about 10 living species) (1 recently extinct)

General characteristics

The size and weight varies from 12-13 cm and 40 g in the white-winged mole (Porzana exquisitus

) up to 59-63 cm and 2-3.2 kg in the giant coot (
Fulica gigantea
) and takahe (
Porphyrio mantelli
).

Almost all birds of this family live near water bodies and in wetlands, among the exceptions is the corncrake, which nests in the area of ​​agricultural land.

Typical representatives of this family settle among the dense vegetation of the lower layer in the area of ​​lakes, rivers or swamps. Few comparatively primitive species inhabit tropical rainforests. In particular, thickets of reeds, sedges or reeds can be distinguished from favorite habitats. In general, birds of this family lead a rather secretive, often nocturnal or crepuscular lifestyle, avoid open spaces and are difficult to see.

Most species run quickly and confidently on soft, muddy soil thanks to their strong legs with long toes that reduce the stress on the ground. Coots have scalloped swimming blades on their feet on the sides of the toes, which indicates its predominantly aquatic lifestyle. Shepherd's wings, as a rule, are short and rounded; birds rarely fly, but if necessary, they are able to overcome a considerable distance. The species that live on the islands often stop flying altogether, and for this reason, many of them are now extinct, as they were unable to defend against ground enemies such as cats, rats and pigs.

As a rule, the body of shepherds is slightly flattened from the sides - this, as well as the more flexible spine in comparison with other birds, allows them to maneuver better in thickets of reeds or other dense coastal vegetation. The tails of all bird species are short and soft, usually raised upward, almost all of them have a white undertail. A white, orange or red shield can often be seen on the forehead, which protects the bird's head from injury. The plumage is soft and loose, molting occurs twice a year - during the full postnuptial period, the ability to fly is temporarily lost. Sexual dimorphism (visible differences between the sexes) is not pronounced in most (with the exception of four) species, except that males are slightly larger than females. A characteristic feature of the family is the uniform twitching of the tail and shaking of the head when walking and while swimming.

Nighttime activity and limited visibility in thickets led to the fact that these birds have a well-developed vocal communication with each other. These are quite noisy birds, their varied and not always euphonious singing is well heard outside of their habitats. Shepherds are omnivorous birds that feed on both plant and animal food, sometimes hunt for other birds and their eggs, reptiles, amphibians, fish and small rodents. In general, animal food is typical for small species, and vegetable food for large species, although there are exceptions.

Shepherd chicks - brood or semi-brood type, having hatched, they do not linger in the nest for a long time. After a day or two, and in large species after 3-4 days, the female begins to take the chicks for a walk, each time returning back. At first, only the mother takes care of the chicks, and the father is engaged in the production of food. Subsequently, both parents participate in the brood of chicks.

Flycatcher family - Muscicapidae (Vigors, 1825)

FamilyFlycatchers Muscicapidae (Vigors, 1825) detachmentSparrow Passeriformes. A vast group of passerine birds, extremely similar in the way of obtaining food: waiting for flying insects and grabbing them in flight. The sizes are small, not larger or slightly larger than a sparrow. The physique is quite solid. The beak is flattened and very wide at the base; here its width exceeds the height and is often equal to the length. The gentle slopes of the beak form a slightly rounded rib. The sides of the beak are formed by smooth or even convex surfaces. The tip of the beak is steeply bent with a hook, in front of it there is a small notch, a small hook, bent upward, sometimes on the lower jaw. The nostrils are located directly in front of the forehead, closer to the edges of the beak, have small caps only at their base and are covered to varying degrees with feathers directed forward and possessing hair-like extensions of the shafts. The bristles at the base of the beak are always very well developed, sometimes they only slightly do not reach the end of the beak. The wings are rather long, with a pointed apex, adapted for quick takeoff and short chases. Primary flywheels 10. The 1st flywheel is always more or less shortened. The wing apex is formed by the 3rd flywheel and subsequent ones. The legs are rather weak. The thin metatarsus is covered in front by several shields, behind by two longitudinal plates. The toes are thin and weak, with small claws. The tail is of the most varied length and shape, with rare exceptions it has 12 tail feathers. The plumage is smoothed. In some groups, large crests develop on the head, and the central tail feathers lengthen in the form of plaits, exceeding the length of the bird's body by 2-3 times. The color is very diverse. Chicks are characterized by a spotted or scaly pattern, with the exception of usually those species in which the adults are very variegated. Many have pronounced sexual dimorphism. Molt is mostly once a year, in autumn, but it happens twice, especially in brightly colored forms. Young in the first autumn change only a small feather. Some species acquire their final outfit only in the second or even third year. There is little variety in the life of various flycatchers. Some of them keep open: on the edges and clearings, some, on the contrary, hide in dense forest areas, in the crowns of trees. There are species that readily nest near human habitation: in parks, gardens, estates, and even on houses. Flycatcher food is obtained in a characteristic way. They wait for prey sitting on a prominent branch or other protruding object, or from an ambush. Having noticed an insect, the flycatcher flies off, chases after it and seizes it on the fly, and then returns to its original place. Flycatchers also catch seated insects, especially during the rearing period. To do this, they even descend to the ground, jumping awkwardly on weak legs. In the fall, plant foods such as berries are sometimes added to insects. Almost all non-tropical species are migratory birds, arriving relatively late and leaving early. Outdoor nests are built, sometimes very skillfully, but many nest in hollows, crevices and other shelters. There are 4-9 eggs, small species have more than large ones. Their color is one-color or spotted. Insect control is of significant benefit in agriculture and forestry. They live only in the eastern hemisphere, with the exception of polar and circumpolar countries, rising in the mountains up to 4000 m.

List of genera of the Flycatcher family Muscicapidae (Vigors, 1825) According to IOC World Bird Names checklist, version 7.3 (July 2017) by Frank Gill & David Donsker.

Rod of the Forklong - Enicurus (Temminck, 1822) • Rod of Zaryanka - Erithacus (Cuvier, 1800) • Kamenka's family - Oenanthe (Vieillot, 1816) • Rod Stonebirds - Monticola (Boie, 1822) • Flycatcher genus - Muscicapa (Brisson, 1760) • Genus Common Redstart - Phoenicurus (T. Forster, 1817) • Genus Spotted Flycatcher - Ficedula (Brisson, 1760) • Genus Red-tailed Warbler - Cercotrichas (Boie, F, 1831) • Genus Bluetail - Tarsiger (Hodgson, 1845) • Rod bluebirds - Myophonus (Temminck, 1822) • Genus blue flycatcher - Cyanoptila (Blyth, 1847) • Genus Blue Nightingales - Larvivora (Hodgson, 1837) • Rod Nightingales - Luscinia (Forster, T, 1817) • Genus Nightingales-white-collar - Irania (De Filippi, 1863) • Genus Red-necked Nightingales - Calliope (Gould, 1836) • Genus Chekana - Saxicola (Bechstein, 1803)

List of species of the family Flycatcher Muscicapidae (Vigors, 1825) According to IOC World Bird Names checklist, version 7.3 (July 2017) by Frank Gill & David Donsker.

Asian black-headed coin - Saxicola maurus (Pallas, 1773) • White-chinned thrush - Monticola gularis (Swinhoe, 1863) • White-leg - Enicurus scouleri (Vigors, 1832) • Large coin - Saxicola insignis (Gray, JE & Gray, GR, 1847) • Bluethroat - Luscinia svecica (Linnaeus, 1758) • Water redstart - Phoenicurus leucocephalus (Vigors, 1831) • Eastern Lesser Flycatcher - Ficedula albicilla (Pallas, 1811) • Eastern black-eared wheatear - Oenanthe melanoleuca (Güldenstädt, 1775) • Eastern black-headed coinage - Saxicola stejnegeri (Parrot, 1908) • Redstart-coot - Phoenicurus phoenicurus (Linnaeus, 1758) • Black Redstart - Phoenicurus ochruros (Gmelin, SG, 1774) • Yellow-backed (Daurian) flycatcher - Ficedula zanthopygia (Hay, 1845) • Western black-eared stove - Oenanthe hispanica (Linnaeus, 1758) • Western black-headed coinage - Saxicola rubicola (Linnaeus, 1766) • Zaryanka - Erithacus rubecula (Linnaeus, 1758) • Gold-tailed Kamenka - Oenanthe chrysopygia (De Filippi, 1863) • Kamenka - Oenanthe oenanthe (Linnaeus, 1758) • Kamenka-pleshanka - Oenanthe pleschanka (Lepechin, 1770) • Kamenka dancer - Oenanthe isabellina (Temminck, 1829) • Red-bellied redstart - Phoenicurus erythrogastrus (Güldenstädt, 1775) • Red-backed redstart - Phoenicurus erythronotus (Eversmann, 1841) • Kurdistani wheatear - Oenanthe xanthoprymna (Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1833) • Meadow coinage - Saxicola rubetra (Linnaeus, 1758) • Small flycatcher - Ficedula parva (Bechstein, 1792) • White collar flycatcher - Ficedula albicollis (Temminck, 1815) • Pied flycatcher - Ficedula hypoleuca (Pallas, 1764) • Variegated flycatcher - Muscicapa griseisticta (Swinhoe, 1861) • Spotted stone thrush - Monticola saxatilis (Linnaeus, 1766) • Semi-Collar Flycatcher - Ficedula semitorquata (Homeyer, 1885) • Desert Kamenka - Oenanthe deserti (Temminck, 1825) • Red-tailed flycatcher - Ficedula ruficauda (Swainson, 1838) • Gray-headed redstart - Phoenicurus coeruleocephala (Vigors, 1831) • Gray flycatcher - Muscicapa striata (Pallas, 1764) • Gray redstart - Phoenicurus fuliginosus (Vigors, 1831) • Siberian redstart - Phoenicurus auroreus (Pallas, 1776) • Siberian flycatcher - Muscicapa sibirica (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) • Bluetail - Tarsiger cyanurus (Pallas, 1773) • Blue stone thrush - Monticola solitarius (Linnaeus, 1758) • Blue nightingale - Larvivora cyane (Pallas, 1776) • Blue flycatcher - Cyanoptila cyanomelana (Temminck, 1829) • Blue bird - Myophonus caeruleus (Scopoli, 1786) • Nightingale - Luscinia luscinia (Linnaeus, 1758) • White-collar nightingale - Irania gutturalis (Guérin-Méneville, 1843) • Red-necked nightingale - Calliope calliope (Pallas, 1776) • Whistler nightingale - Larvivora sibilans (Swinhoe, 1863) • Taiga flycatcher - Ficedula mugimaki (Temminck, 1836) • Tugai nightingale - Cercotrichas galactotes (Temminck, 1820) • Black heater - Oenanthe picata (Blyth, 1847) • Black-breasted rudneck - Calliope pectoralis (Gould, 1837) • Black-necked heater - Oenanthe finschii (von Heuglin, 1869) • Black coin - Saxicola caprata (Linnaeus, 1766) • Broad-billed flycatcher - Muscicapa dauurica (Pallas, 1811) • Southern nightingale - Luscinia megarhynchos (Brehm, CL, 1831) • Japanese robin - Larvivora akahige (Temminck, 1835) • Japanese flycatcher - Ficedula narcissina (Temminck, 1836)

Literature • “The fauna of birds of the countries of Northern Eurasia within the borders of the former USSR: Lists of species. (01.2016) "E.A. Koblik, V.Yu. Arkhipov. • IOC World Bird Names checklist, version 7.3 (July 2017) by Frank Gill & David Donsker. • "Birds of the USSR" L.A. Portenko Ed. Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Moscow. Leningrad. 1960, part 4, p. 105.

Spread

Shepherds are widespread throughout the world, absent only in the arctic and subarctic regions, Antarctica and large deserts. The most biodiversity is observed in the tropics and subtropics, in the taiga zone of the northern hemisphere and on the subarctic islands, only a few species are seen. A distinctive feature of shepherds is their ability to penetrate even the most remote islands, despite the fact that they fly rarely and badly.

On the territory of Russia, shepherds are represented by 14 species from 9 genera, 11 of which nest. There are reports of single visits from the territory of North America of the Carolina chase (Porzana carolina

). Cases of nesting of horned moorhen (
Gallicrex cinerea
) and white-breasted pogonysh are considered unproven so far. The Red Book of Russia includes species of horned moorhen, sultanka (
Porphyrio porphyrio
) and red-footed chase (
Porzana fusca
).

Classification

In the shepherd family (Rallidae) there are 34 modern genera and 6 more extinct over the past 4 centuries:

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