Venezuelan Corridor (Corydoras venezuelanus) Ihering, 1911.
Subfamily: Armored (Corydoradinae)
Habitat and Habitat
South America water bodies of Venezuela.
This species is widespread in the lower reaches of streams and rivers in the basin of the Rio Tui and Lake Valencia in northern Venezuela in the States of Miranda, Aragua and Carabobo. It can also be found in nearby Orinoco rivers and streams such as the Rio Chirgua.
It is a species that prefers cooler waters and is never found in the plains.
Has a large oval green or black spot covering the shoulder girdle and a distinct iridescent reddish brown spot on the back of the head.
Commercially bred specimens may be shorter-bodied than their wild counterparts, and balloon-shaped options are available.
Behavior and compatibility
Peaceful and sociable, it is classified as a social species, therefore, in order to fully reveal its characteristic behavior, it should be kept in a group of at least 4-6 individuals.
It occupies the lowest level in the aquarium.
Calm and peaceful fish, in neighbors it is better to select fish similar in size and behavior (haracin and the like), you need to abandon aggressive neighbors.
Often the catfish rushes to the surface of the water as it is able to breathe atmospheric air in a manner similar to many labyrinths - this happens when a lack of oxygen is formed in the water. Like other members of the family, fish of this genus have additional intestinal respiration and must have access to the surface of the water.
Capacity from 50 liters, filtration and aeration are required to create a weak flow of water that simulates natural conditions, corridors live mainly in small streams, ideally use a substrate of fine sand, although rounded gravel is an acceptable alternative.
Choosing a different decor comes down to a lot of personal preference, you can add a few snags and small stones. Live aquarium plants will recreate their natural habitat and will be used by catfish as hiding places.
Prefers diffused lighting.
Temperature: 21 - 27 ° С
Hardness: 7 - 20 ° dH
It is necessary to maintain good water quality and regularly clean the soil, any deviation in water parameters leads to a deterioration in the well-being of the fish.
Feeding is not difficult, they are omnivorous and will accept any sinking dry food, as well as live and frozen ones, such as bloodworms, tubifex, etc.
A varied diet will ensure that your fish are kept in an optimal aquarium condition.
Sexual differences are weakly expressed, although females, as a rule, grow to large sizes, and in sexually mature individuals, the body is noticeably rounder and wider.
Puberty at 8-12 months.
For spawning, it is preferable to plant a group of fish at the age of 1.5 years (4-6 males and 2-3 females or 2-3 males and 1 female), which are kept separately for a week, and fed intensively and variedly.
Spawning, both in general and in a small spawning aquarium with an air filter - airlift.
Frequent addition of fresh cool water stimulates spawning, lower atmospheric pressure is also a stimulus.
Females begin to swim restlessly, pursued by males. Then one of them stands sideways in front of the female's head and releases milk, while the female at this time lays several eggs in the fins folded in a bucket and swims through this cloud. The female lays eggs up to 300 pieces on leaves and hard objects. This process is repeated several times and can last from several hours to 3 days. At this time, it is recommended to feed the fish vigorously so as not to starve, because the female can eat eggs.
After spawning, the fish are removed or the substrate with eggs is transferred to an incubator, if the eggs are deposited on the glass of the aquarium, then they are carefully removed with a razor.
The incubation period is 3-6 days, the fry swim the next day. Starter feed live dust.
This species can be confused with Corydoras aeneus, and indeed C. venezuelanus is generally considered synonymous with this species. However, it is believed that C. aeneus should be limited to the holotype form, which is native to the island of Trinidad. In addition, C. venezuelanus is limited in range in two closed water systems (Riotuy and Lake Valencia) located north of the serrania del interior (Venezuelan rock formation). This is the only measles in these waters.
Gray bristly weevil, Bristly moth elephant, Bristly pea elephant, Sitones crinitus, Spotted bean weevil
Spotted pea weevil
Coleoptera (Beetles) - Coleoptera
Bristly nodule weevil - a pest of peas, vetch, beans, lentils, alfalfa, sainfoin and other cultivated legumes. Beetles and larvae are harmful. Beetles are more polyphagous. Reproduction is bisexual. Development is complete. Beetles usually hibernate, less often larvae. One generation develops in a year. Belongs to the economic group of nodule weevils.
Click on the photo to enlarge
Imago... The beetle is 2.8–4.5 mm long. Elytra, especially in posterior half, with distinct protruding setae. The eyes are strongly and uniformly prominent. Pronotum with 3 pale narrow longitudinal stripes. The scales on the elytra are round, grayish-ocher and white, large, as a rule, without a metallic sheen. Part of the third, all of the fifth, the base of the sixth and eighth, as well as the entire tenth intervals are whitish, with randomly scattered dark spots and yellow-gray longitudinal stripes. Legs and tibiae are red.
Sexual dimorphism... Different-sex individuals of the family of weevils differ in the structure of the genitals.
Egg small, oval.
LarvaLike all representatives of the family of weevils, it is devoid of legs and eyes, is more or less curved ventrally, and has a small chitinized head.
ChrysalisLike all representatives of the family of weevils, it resembles a beetle in shape with weakly expressed rudiments of the rostrum, legs and wings.
Phenology of development (in days)
Imago... Adult beetles overwinter in feeding places, in the fields of leguminous plants. In spring, awakening occurs when the air temperature is 3-4 ° C. The vital activity of the pest is activated at + 12-14 ° C, they fly at + 13-17 ° C. During the migration period, seedlings of various legumes are populated. Depending on weather conditions, the settlement period can last from 5 to 20 days.
Beetles need additional nutrition, therefore, eating the leaves of leguminous plants is observed already in the first warm spring days. At first, the nutrition is weak, and on the young growing leaves the appearance of separate depressions, gnawed from the edges, is observed. The onset of warm sunny weather leads to massive damage to populated areas. There are cases of complete destruction of leaves on seedlings of peas, vetch and other legumes.
Mating period... Egg-laying takes place in April - May, depending on the climate of the habitat and weather conditions. The total number of eggs laid by a female ranges from 82 to 860. 27 eggs are laid in one day. Females lay eggs scattered on the soil surface, stems and leaves of forage plants. The seat is not specially selected. The eggs dry up and roll to the ground, where, during the rains, they mix with the surface layer of the soil.
Phenology of development of Nodule weevil. Corresponds to the southern regions of the Russian Federation, Moldova, Ukraine, etc. According to:
Egg... The development of the embryo at a temperature of + 28 ° C lasts 7 days, at + 12 ° C - up to 29 days. The optimum temperature is 21-25 ° C. Below + 8 ° C and above + 32 ° C, the development of the embryo does not occur.
Larva... Mass hatching is observed in May-June with sufficient precipitation. Lack of rain leads to the death of a significant part of the eggs. The hatched larvae penetrate the nodules for nutrition. Having destroyed the contents of one nodule, the larva passes into another. Having destroyed 2–3 nodules, the caterpillar increases in size and feeds on the outside of the nodules, damaging not only the nodules themselves, but also the outer tissues on the roots of plants. One larva destroys 3 to 8 nodules, depending on their size. The development of the larva lasts 30–40 days.
Chrysalis... Pupation takes place in the soil and begins in the first half of June in the forest-steppe zone of Ukraine. The majority of pupae are located at a depth of 10–20 cm. The pupation depth varies from 5 to 30 cm. The pupal stage lasts 9–13 days.
Imago... Young beetles that emerge from the soil in summer need food. Therefore, cases of migration of young beetles to plants with juicy green organs have been noticed. From peas, they fly to broad beans, vetch, lentils, lupine and other grains, and then to perennial legumes. Here they continue to feed until they leave for winter. The full development cycle of the pest lasts 45-60 days.
Morphologically related species
According to the morphology (appearance), the imago is close to the described species Sainfoin nodule weevil (Sitona callosus). The main differences are: the presence of a tubercle on the elytra in front of the apex of the fifth interval, covered in front with light scales, an almost cylindrical pronotum, a wide head, with short parallel temples, larger (4–7 mm).
In addition to this species, there are often Melilot nodule weevil (Sitona cylindricollis) and moth nodule weevil (Sitona flavescens), also similar in morphology to adults with bristle-nodule weevils (Sitona crinitus).
The bristle nodule weevil is distributed throughout the European part of Russia and part of Siberia, except for the north of the taiga belt and tundra. The area of the pest covers the Caucasus, Kazakhstan, Central Asia (excluding deserts), Western Europe, North Africa, Asia Minor and Western Asia, Mongolia, northwest China.
Bristle root weevil is a dangerous pest of peas and other legumes. Beetles and larvae are harmful. As a result of the vital activity of the pest, the yield of green mass and seeds is reduced.
Spraying during the growing season:
Seed treatment before sowing:
- Plowing fields after harvesting vetch for hay and peas after ripening.
- Place legumes as far away from perennial legumes as possible.
- Sowing crops in an early tight schedule.
- Liming of acidic soils.
Treatment of seeds before sowing with insecticides of neonicotinoid origin.
When writing the article, the following sources were also used:
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The article was compiled using the following materials:
Vasiliev V.P. Pests of agricultural crops and forest plantations: In 3 volumes - T. 2. Harmful arthropods, vertebrates. - 2nd ed., Rev. and add. / Under total. ed. V.P. Vasil'eva, Edited by V.G. Dolin, V.N. Stovbchaty. - K .: Harvest, 1988 576., ill. OK
Verderevsky D.D. An agronomist's guide to plant protection. A team of authors edited by D.D. Verderevsky, T.N. Polevoy, V.A. Shap. - Chisinau: "Kartya Moldoveneaske", 1968. - 724 p.
State catalog of pesticides and agrochemicals approved for use in the Russian Federation, 2013. Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation (Ministry of Agriculture of Russia)
Kryzhanovsky O.L., Insects and mites - pests of agricultural crops. Volume II. Coleoptera. L: Publishing house "Science", 1974.- 336 p.
Benada J. Atlas of diseases and pests of leguminous crops. A team of authors led by J. Benada, I. Shediva, J. Shpachek. Artist I. Soukup. - Prague: State Publishing House of Agricultural Literature, 1969. - 178 p., Ill. Illustrations from the book. ©
Technique for working with petty tyrants
This technique, which combines a pragmatic attitude to life and humor, is one of the most refined expressions of the art of stalking.
In its most general form, it can be applied to any situation in which we find ourselves the victim of unfavorable circumstances, in which we fell against our will.
This is especially true when our personal ego is hurt. These are situations involving insult. infliction of humiliation or mistreatment.
In Castaneda's account, the petty tyrant technique is one of the highest manifestations of the art of stalking.
It was developed during the Spanish conquest of Mexico, when magicians and people of knowledge were subjected to terrible oppression by the Spaniards.
In those days, most magicians were exterminated, but some used the circumstances to improve the art of stalking, so that these survivors could get out unharmed from the most adverse situations.
To perfect their art, they used everything: the persecution, oppression and mistreatment to which they were subjected. They have learned to act covertly and manage situations. If they managed to stay alive, then in the end they came out victorious. They turned their communication with petty tyrants into a matter of strategy.
But the most important finding was that the strategy of dealing with petty tyrants proved to be extremely effective in eradicating self-importance. Since this feeling is one of the most energy-intensive types of human activity, its eradication becomes one of the most important goals of a stalker interested in using this energy to meet the unknown.
Don Juan in Fire from Within gives a very simple definition of a petty tyrant: "A petty tyrant is a tormentor, one who has power over the life and death of soldiers or is able to make their life unbearable ... "(VII-42).
Colonial-era stalkers classified petty tyrants into categories according to their level of influence. High above the human level, they placed the inexorable Force - the source of all that exists, the primary energy of the universe, and called it Tyrant. Compared to this Power, even the most powerful and cruel tormentors of people were just petty tyrants, and they formed the basis of the classification.
Petty tyrants - can dispose of the life and death of their victims at their own whim.
Petty Tyrants - can harass their victims and inflict non-fatal wounds.
Small-fry tyrants are endlessly annoying and constantly annoying. Naturally, in the era of the Spanish invasion, petty tyrants were everywhere. However, the warriors of subsequent eras and our days usually deal with petty tyrants.
They fall into four categories:
- Those who are tormented by cruelty and violence.
- Those who create unbearable fears.
- Those who suppress sadness and gloomy mood.
- Those who torture, infuriating people.
As stated in "Fire from Within", to communicate with petty tyrants, stalkers rely on the first four elements of the stalker's strategy, which we will now begin to consider.
The six elements listed below are mutually supportive. The first five refer to the inner world of a warrior and are called "attributes of a warrior." The sixth element belongs to the outside world. All elements, with the exception of the fifth, belong to the world of the known.
The control - gaining the spirit of an accurate attitude when a petty tyrant tramples on you.
Discipline - Gathering information about the tyrant, while he hits you.
Excerpt - patient waiting, without haste and impatience, restraining oneself until the moment of settling accounts.
Choosing the right moment - this is the time when it is necessary to put into action everything that control, discipline and endurance have prepared, in other words, open the floodgates of the dam.
Will - the only element related to the world of the unknown.
Petty tyrant is a tormentor who makes life miserable.The warrior uses it to destroy self-importance and learn to be flawless.
This technique requires a certain amount of work experience and awareness that beginners do not have. Here it is necessary to maintain at least a minimal composure in order to follow the chosen strategy in situations where ordinary people are stunned by explosions of their own emotions. It is important to be able to look at the situation from the outside.
Commentary on the technique
Any meeting with a petty tyrant, even with the most insignificant, brings harm and insult to ordinary people. However, the most devastating blow is not related to the damage that the tyrant inflicts on us - this blow inflicts resentment and humiliation on us, which arises from the fact that we take ourselves too seriously. Let's look at the role of petty tyrants in our lives and ask ourselves: is the harm that they caused us so great? The collected observation will allow us to realize that the real enemy is in ourselves.
This sense of self-importance, it gnaws at us from the inside when we find ourselves in a situation unacceptable for our ego. A warrior can be physically harmed, but he will not feel insulted by the actions of a petty tyrant. A warrior can be hit, but not humiliated. The advantage of a warrior over a petty tyrant (whose main distinguishing feature and weakness is an extremely serious attitude towards himself) lies in the excess of energy that has not been spent on maintaining a sense of self-importance. With an excess of energy, the warrior follows his strategy, he retains the ability to control and observe, and then sets his traps and waits. In the end, the warrior emerges victorious, while strengthening his spirit.
The warrior carefully examines each situation that has arisen, perceives it as a challenge and behaves in accordance with the strategy. Such a course of action can not only be used to communicate with petty tyrants, but also apply to any situation in which we may become a victim of an attack, feel humiliated or insulted. What new opportunities will open up for us if we stop being guided by a sense of self-importance in our actions? The answer to this question can only be obtained in practice.
A person who is not engaged in self-torture in connection with the insult received is in a better position - he can avoid any harm. Consider the case of a man chased by a lion: a man has to flee. If he wastes time angry at the lion or feeling offended by the "mistreatment" of the animal, he will die. It's the same in human relationships: our sense of self-importance makes us incapable of acting at the necessary moment, respectively, the results are quite predictable.
Final technical clarification.
It must be applied with caution. It should not be forgotten that the petty tyrant is the enemy. I emphasize this, because there will always be someone who will say: "Oh, what luck! I already have a petty tyrant at home. This is my wife (or husband)." Be wary of this kind of lighthearted attitude towards technology. Your situation may require honesty and compassion rather than confrontation, even if it will be conducted according to all the rules of strategy.
It should be remembered that the stalker should not give vent to a sense of self-importance - this applies to any situation. The petty tyrant must be in a position of strength in relation to the stalker, be an external factor that is not normally under our control. We can't stick the "petty tyrant" label on those we just don't like.
From the book of Victor Sanchez: The Teachings of Don Carlos. Practical use of the techniques of Carlos Casteneda.