Sin .: haronga, harunga, harungana.
Haronga Madagascar is a small bushy tree with a forked trunk and branches extending from a cylindrical stem. It has a golden-green crown and a burgundy bark with longitudinal vertical cracks. The plant is used in the everyday life of the inhabitants of Africa as a source of wood fuel. Also used in traditional medicine and homeopathy.
Table of contents
- Botanical description
- Procurement of raw materials
- Chemical composition
- Pharmacological properties
- Application in traditional medicine
- History reference
The plant is not included in the State Pharmacopoeia of the Russian Federation and is not used as a medicine in official medicine.
In western Europe, the bark of the plant is used to produce the haronga extract - “Harongan”. It is used in the treatment of acute and chronic digestive disorders accompanied by flatulence. In addition, harunga extract is included in dietary supplements that normalize digestion processes. These drugs include "Gastrovit".
The dried leaves and bark of Haronga Madagascar are used in homeopathy. A tincture is prepared from the raw materials of the plant and 90% alcohol, which is used for flatulence, disorders of the liver, pancreas and gallbladder.
Contraindications and side effects
In our country, haronga can only be found in the form of finished preparations. You should start taking them only after consulting your doctor, it is important to strictly observe the dosage. Preparations based on Haronga Madagascar are contraindicated for pregnant and lactating women, as well as for children under 12 years of age.
Anti-aging cosmetics are produced on the basis of Madagascar Haronga extract. Clarins has launched a series of face and neck care products for women over 50. Research by the company's laboratory has shown that Haronga Madagascar extract has a relaxing effect on the skin and promotes collagen production. Clarins anti-aging products help restore the original cell shape, fight dark spots and deep wrinkles, make the skin denser and more radiant.
Haronga Madagascar is used by the inhabitants of Africa mainly as a source of wood fuel. Also, charcoal is produced from the plant on a local scale. In addition, the trunks, stripped of branches and bark, serve as props in the construction of houses. The valuable qualities of the Madagascar haronga are high heat transfer and lightness.
Haronga Madagascar, or Haronga, or Harunga, or Harungana (lat.Harungana madagascariensis) is a species of angiosperms. She is the only representative of the genus Harunga (lat. Harungana), the family of St. John's wort (lat. Hypericaceae).
The Haronga Madagascar plant is a small bushy tree, usually from 4 to 7 cm in height, but sometimes it can reach 25 m in height. Branches extend from the cylindrical, always bifurcated stem. The crown of the tree is golden green. The bark is claret, has longitudinal vertical cracks. When the bark is separated from the trunk, a fluorescent resin is released, which collects in the sinuses. In the period of rest or illness of the tree, resin is not released. The leaves are simple, opposite, sitting on cuttings 1.5-3 cm long. They are ovoid, tapering towards the top. Leaf plates 6-20 cm with a glossy upper part and a lower part covered with stellate hairs. Young leaves are characterized by a brown inner surface. The flowers are small (5-6 mm), dioecious, white or cream in color, exuding an almond aroma. Sepals to a dark red or brown point. Stamens accreted in five bundles (2-3 in each), sometimes there are single, non-accrete. The ovary of the pistil is covered with dark spots, and the corolla and calyx are covered with short orange hairs. The fruits of the Haronga Madagascar are similar to berries, characterized by a hard surface covered with glandular dots and stripes. They are greenish-orange in color and turn red when ripe. The fruits of the plant are inedible. Haronga seeds have broadly spatulate cotyledons with dark, essential oil-bearing glands and a long, thin petiole.
The homeland of the Haronga Madagascar is the Central African Republic, Ethiopia, Congo, Lesotho, Kenya, Madagascar, Sierra Leone, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Sudan, Uganda and Tanzania. The plant grows both in forest regions and in the savannah, mainly at medium or low altitudes (1000-1600 m). Haronga is currently cultivated in Australia, where it was brought from Africa and Madagascar. There it grows in coastal lowland rainforests and spreads like a weed.
Procurement of raw materials
Africans use the fresh bark and leaves of the haronga for medicinal purposes. Raw materials from the plant are harvested only for production purposes. To do this, use the bark of the haronga (Harongae cortex), less often the leaves (Harongae folium). The bark is carefully removed from the trunk and dried in a well-ventilated area. Leaves are picked when young and also left in dark, ventilated areas. Further, the raw material is transported to production and is subject to processing.
The leaves of the plant contain substances similar to those found in our St. John's wort. Also, the chemical composition of the Madagascar haronga contains leukocyanins, hypericin-like compounds, tannins, flavonoids and hyperforin.
The pharmacological properties of the Madagascar haronga are due to the chemical composition of the bark and leaves. The most active compounds in the plant are flavonoids. They have an antispasmodic effect on the smooth muscles of the intestines and bile ducts. This helps to increase the outflow of bile and improve intestinal motility. Haronga-based preparations are recommended for acute and chronic digestive disorders associated with malfunctioning of the pancreas, liver and gallbladder and accompanied by a feeling of overeating, bloating and gas. Tannins have astringent, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects. It is recommended to take drugs based on haronga for various intestinal inflammations and for the prevention of ulcers. Hyperforin helps to normalize the intestinal microflora. This property is secondary due to the chemical instability of the compound.
Application in traditional medicine
Haronga Madagascar is widely used in folk medicine in Africa and Madagascar. For medicinal purposes, all parts of the plant are used: roots, bark, leaves, flowers and juice. Haronga roots are adopted by young women. This helps to improve the development of the mammary glands. The bark of the plant is eaten raw to improve digestion, in the form of a decoction and infusion in the treatment of malaria and jaundice. Leaves are applied to wounds to stop bleeding. They are also used for fever, headaches and sore throats, diarrhea, and in the treatment of gonorrhea. Infants are watered with a decoction from the stalks of the harona to relieve colic. Compresses from plant juice are used for scabies and ringworm. The juice is taken orally as an anthelmintic agent.
Photo "African swamps, Porphyrio madagascariensis"